Treaty with The Winnebago
November 1, 1837
Articles of a treaty made at the city of Washington, between
Carey A. Harris, thereto specially directed by the President
of the United States, and the Winnebago nation of Indians,
by their chiefs and delegates.
THE Winnebago nation of Indians cede to the United States
all their land east of the Mississippi river.
The said Indians further agree to relinquish the right to
occupy, except for the purpose of hunting a portion of the
land held by them west of the Mississippi, included between
that river and a line drawn from a point twenty miles distant
therefrom on the southern boundary of the neutral ground to
a point, equidistant from the said river, on the northern
But this stipulation shall not be so construed, as to invalidate
their title to the said tract.
The said Indians agree to remove within eight months from
the ratification of this treaty, to that portion of the neutral
ground west of the Mississippi, which was conveyed to them
in the second article of the treaty of September 15th, [21st]
1832, and the United States agree that the said Indians may
hunt upon the western part of said neutral ground until they
shall procure a permanent settlement.
In consideration of the cession and relinquishment contained
in the preceding articles, the United States agree to the
following stipulations on their part.
First. To set apart the sum of two hundred thousand dollars
($200,000) for the following purposes:
To pay to the individuals herein named the sum specified
To Nicholas Boilvin, six thousand dollars ($6,000);
to the other four children of Nicholas Boilvin, formerly
agent for said nation, four thousand dollars ($4,000) each;
to Catherine Myott, one thousand dollars, ($1,000);
to Hyancinthe St. Cyr one thousand dollars ($1,000);
to the widow of Henry Gratiot, late sub-agent of the nation,
in trust for her eight children, ten thousand dollars ($10,000);
to H. L. Dousman, in trust for the children of Pierre Paquette,
late interpreter for the nation three thousand dollars ($3,000);
to Joseph Brisbois, two thousand dollars ($2,000);
to Satterlee Clark, junior, two thousand dollars ($2,000);
to John Roy, two thousand dollars ($2,000);
to Antoine Grignon, two thousand dollars ($2,000);
to Jane F. Rolette, two thousand dollars ($2,000);
to George Fisher, one thousand dollars ($1,000);
to Therese Roy, one thousand dollars ($1,000);
to Domitille Brisbois, one thousand dollars ($1,000).
These sums are allowed, at the earnest solicitation of the
chiefs and delegates, for supplies and services to the nation,
afforded by these individuals.
The balance of the above sum of two hundred thousand dollars
($200,000) shall be applied to the debts of the nation, which
may be ascertained to be justly due, and which may be admitted
by the Indians: Provided, That if all their just debts shall
amount to more than this balance, their creditors shall be
paid pro rata, upon their giving receipts in full; and if
the just debts shall fall short of said balance, the residue
of it shall be invested for the benefit of the nation; And
provided, also, That no claim for depredations shall be paid
out of said balance.
Second. To pay, under the direction of the President, to
the relations and friends of said Indians, having not less
than one quarter of Winnebago blood, one hundred thousand
Third. To expend, for their removal to the lands assigned
them, a sum not exceeding seven thousand dollars ($7,000).
Fourth. To deliver to the chiefs and delegates on their arrival
at St. Louis, goods and horses to the amount of three thousand
dollars ($3,000); and, also, to deliver to them, as soon as
practicable after the ratification of this treaty, and at
the expense of the United States goods to the amount of forty-seven
thousand dollars ($47,000).
Fifth. To deliver to them provisions to the amount of ten
thousand dollars, ($10,000); and horses to the same amount.
Sixth. To apply to the erection of a grist-mill, three thousand
Seventh. To expend, in breaking up and fencing in ground,
after the removal of the said Indians, ten thousand dollars
Eighth. To set apart the sum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000)
to defray contingent and incidental expenses in the execution
of this treaty, and the expenses of an exploring party, when
the said Indians shall express a willingness to send one to
the country southwest of the Missouri river.
Ninth. To invest the balance of the proceeds of the lands
ceded in the first article of the treaty, amounting to eleven
hundred thousand dollars (1,100,000,) and to guaranty to them
an interest of not less than five per cent.
Of this interest amounting to fifty-five thousand dollars
($55,000,) it is agreed the following disposition shall be
For purposes of education, twenty-eight hundred dollars ($2,800).
For the support of an interpreter for the school, five hundred
For the support of a miller, six hundred dollars ($600.)
For the supply of agricultural implements and assistance,
five hundred dollars, ($500.)
For medical services and medicines, six hundred dollars ($600.)
The foregoing sums to be expended for the objects specified,
for the term of twenty-two years, and longer at the discretion
of the President. If at the expiration of that period, or
any time thereafter, he shall think it expedient to discontinue
either or all of the above allowances, the amount so discontinued
shall be paid to the said Winnebago nation. The residue of
the interest, amounting to fifty thousand dollars ($50,000,)
shall be paid to said nation, in the following manner; Ten
thousand dollars ($10,000) in provisions, twenty thousand
dollars ($20,000) in goods, and twenty thousand dollars ($20,000)
It is understood and agreed that so much of the stipulations
in existing treaties with said Winnebago nation, as requires
services to be performed, supplies furnished, or payments
made, at designated times and places, shall be henceforth
null and void; and those stipulations shall be carried into
effect at such times and at such points in the country to
which they are about to remove, as the President may direct.
This treaty to be binding on the contracting parties when
it shall be ratified by the United States.
In witness whereof, the said Carey A. Harris and the undersigned
chiefs and delegates of the said Winnebago nation, have hereunto
set their hands at the City of Washington, this first day
of November, A. D. 1837.
- C. A. Harris.
- Watch-hat-ty-kan, (Big Boat,)
- Keesh-kee-pa-kah, (Kar-i-mo-nee,)
- Mo-ra-chay-kah, (Little Priest,)
- Ma-na-pay-kah, (Little Soldier,)
- Wa-kaun-ha-kah, (Snake Skin,)
- Ma-hee-koo-shay-nuz-he-kah, (Young Decori,)
- Wa-kun-cha-koo-kah, (Yellow Thunder,)
- Wa-kaun-kah, (The Snake,)
- Wa-kun-cha-nic-kah, (Little Thunder,)
- Nautch-kay-suck-kah, (Quick Heart,)
- Mai-ta-sha-hay-ma-ne-kah, (Young Kar-i-mo-nee,)
- Wa-kaun-ho-no-nic-kah, (Little Snake,)
- Hoong-kah, (Old Chief,)
- To-shun-uc-kah, (Little Otter,)
- Sho-go-nic-kah, (Little Hill,)
- Homp-ska-kah, (Fine Day,)
- Chow-walk-saih-e-nic, (The Plover,)
- Ah-oo-shush-kah, (Red Wing,)
- Shoog-hat-ty-kah, (Big Gun,)
- Ha-kah-kah, (Little Boy Child.)
In presence of -
- Thos. A. B. Boyd, U. S. S. Indian agent.
- N. Boilvin,
- Antoine Grinion,
- Jean Roy,
- Joseph Moore,
- J. Brisbois,
- Sat. Clark, jr.,
- Alexis Bailly.
- H. H. Sibley, agent Am. Fur. Co.
- John Lowe.
- John M'Farlane.
- W. Gunton.
- T. R. Cruttenden.
- Charles E. Mix.
- A. R. Potts.
- Rd. L. Mackall.
(To the Indian names are subjoined a mark.)
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