Treaty with The Western Shoshoni
October 1, 1863
Treaty of Peace and Friendship made at Ruby Valley, in
the Territory of Nevada, this first day of October, A. D.
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, between the United
States of America, represented by the undersigned commissioners,
and the Western Bands of the Shoshonee Nation of Indians,
represented by their Chiefs and Principal Men and Warriors,
Peace and friendship shall be hereafter established and maintained
between the Western Bands of the Shoshonee nation and the
people and Government of the United States; and the said bands
stipulate and agree that hostilities and all depredations
upon the emigrant trains, the mail and telegraph lines, and
upon the citizens of the United States within their country,
The several routes of travel through the Shoshonee country,
now or hereafter used by white men, shall be forever free,
and unobstructed by the said bands, for the use of the government
of the United States, and of all emigrants and travellers
under its authority and protection, without molestation or
injury from them. And if depredations are at any time committed
by bad men of their nation, the offenders shall be immediately
taken and delivered up to the proper officers of the United
States, to be punished as their offences shall deserve; and
the safety of all travellers passing peaceably over either
of said routes is hereby guarantied by said bands.
Military posts may be established by the President of the
United States along said routes or elsewhere in their country;
and station houses may be erected and occupied at such points
as may be necessary for the comfort and convenience of travellers
or for mail or telegraph companies.
The telegraph and overland stage lines having been established
and operated by companies under the authority of the United
States through a part of the Shoshonee country, it is expressly
agreed that the same may be continued without hindrance, molestation,
or injury from the people of said bands, and that their property
and the lives and property of passengers in the stages and
of the employes of the respective companies, shall be protected
by them. And further, it being understood that provision has
been made by the government of the United States for the construction
of a railway from the plains west to the Pacific ocean, it
is stipulated by the said bands that the said railway or its
branches may be located, constructed, and operated, and without
molestation from them, through any portion of country claimed
or occupied by them.
It is further agreed by the parties hereto, that the Shoshonee
country may be explored and prospected for gold and silver,
or other minerals; and when mines are discovered, they may
be worked, and mining and agricultural settlements formed,
and ranches established whenever they may be required. Mills
may be erected and timber taken for their use, as also for
building and other purposes in any part of the country claimed
by said bands.
It is understood that the boundaries of the country claimed
and occupied by said bands are defined and described by them
On the north by Wong-goga-da Mountains and Shoshonee River
Valley; on the west by Su-non-to-yah Mountains or Smith Creek
Mountains; on the south by Wi-co-bah and the Colorado Desert;
on the east by Po-ho-no-be Valley or Steptoe Valley and Great
Salt Lake Valley.
The said bands agree that whenever the President of the United
States shall deem it expedient for them to abandon the roaming
life, which, they now lead, and become herdsmen or agriculturalists,
he is hereby authorized to make such reservations for their
use as he may deem necessary within the country above described;
and they do also hereby agree to remove their camps to such
reservations as he may indicate, and to reside and remain
The United States, being aware of the inconvenience resulting
to the Indians in consequence of the driving away and destruction
of game along the routes travelled by white men, and by the
formation of agricultural and mining settlements, are willing
to fairly compensate them for the same; therefore, and in
consideration of the preceding stipulations, and of their
faithful observance by the said bands, the United States promise
and agree to pay to the said bands of the Shoshonee nation
parties hereto, annually for the term of twenty years, the
sum of five thousand dollars in such articles, including cattle
for herding or other purposes, as the President of the United
States shall deem suitable for their wants and condition,
either as hunters or herdsmen. And the said bands hereby acknowledge
the reception of the said stipulated annuities as a full compensation
and equivalent for the loss of game and the rights and privileges
The said bands hereby acknowledge that they have received
from said commissioners provisions and clothing amounting
to five thousand dollars as presents at the conclusion of
Done at Ruby Valley the day and year above written.
- James W. Nye.
- James Duane Doty.
- Te-moak, his x mark.
- Kirk-weedgwa, his x mark.
- To-nag, his x mark.
- To-so-wee-so-op, his x mark.
- Sow-er-e-gah, his x mark.
- Po-on-go-sah, his x mark.
- Par-a-woat-ze, his x mark.
- Ga-ha-dier, his x mark.
- Ko-ro-kout-ze, his x mark.
- Pon-ge-mah, his x mark.
- Buck, his x mark.
- J.B.Moore, lieutenant-colonel Third Infantry California Volunteers.
- Jacob T.Lockhart, Indian agent Nevada Territory.
- Henry Butterfield, interpreter.
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