Treaty with The Snake
August 12, 1865
Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded
at Sprague River Valley, on this twelfth day of August, in
the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, by J.
W. Perit Huntington, super-intendent of Indian affairs in
Oregon, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned
chiefs and head-men of the Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snake Indians,
acting in behalf of said tribe, being duly authorized so to
Peace is declared henceforth between the United States and
the Woll-pah-pe tribe of Snake Indians, and also between said
tribe and all other tribes in amity with the United States.
All prisoners and slaves held by the Woll-pah-pe tribe, whether
the same are white persons or members of Indian tribes in
amity with the United States, shall be released; and all persons
belonging to the said Woll-pah-pe tribe now held as prisoners
by whites, or as slaves by other Indian tribes, shall be given
The said tribe hereby cedes and relinquishes to the United
States all their right, title, and interest to the country
occupied by them, described as follows, to wit: Beginning
at the Snow Peak in the summit of the Blue Mountain range,
near the heads of the Grande Ronde River and the north fork
of John Day's River; thence down said north fork of John
Day's River to its junction with the south fork; thence
due south to Crooked River; thence up Crooked River and the
south fork thereof to its source; thence southeasterly to
Harney Lake; thence northerly to the heads of Malheur and
Burnt Rivers; thence continuing northerly to the place of
The said tribe agree to remove forthwith to the reservation
designated by the treaty concluded on the 14th [15th] of October,
1864, with the Klamath, Moadoc, and Yahooskiu Snake Indians,
there to remain under the authority and protection of such
Indian agent, or other officer, as the Government of the United
States may assign to such duty, and no member of said tribe
shall leave said reservation for any purpose without the written
consent of the agent or superintendent having jurisdiction
over said tribe.
The said Woll-pah-pe tribe promise to be friendly with the
people of the United States, to submit to the authority thereof,
and to commit no depredations upon the persons or property
of citizens thereof, or of other Indian tribes; and should
any member of said tribe commit any such depredations, he
shall be delivered up to the agent for punishment, and the
property restored. If after due notice the tribe neglect or
refuse to make restitution, or the property is injured or
destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out
of the annuities hereinafter provided. In case of any depredation
being committed upon the person or property of any member
of the aforesaid Woll-pah-pe tribe, it is stipulated that
no attempt at revenge, retaliation, or reclamation shall be
made by said tribe; but the case shall be reported to the
agent or superintendent in charge, and the United States guarantee
that such depredation shall be punished in the same manner
as if committed against white persons, and that the property
shall be restored to the owner.
The said tribe promise to endeavor to induce the Hoo-ne-boo-ey
and Wa-tat-kah tribes of Snake Indians to cease hostilitiesagainst
the whites; and they also agree that they will, in no case,
sell any arms or ammunition to them nor to any other tribe
hostile to the United States.
The United States agree to expend, for the use and benefit
of said tribe, the sum of five thousand dollars to enable
the Indians to fence, break up, and cultivate a sufficient
quantity of land for their use, to supply them with seeds,
farming-implements, domestic animals, and such subsistence
as may be necessary during the first year of their residence
upon the reservation.
The United States also agree to expend, for the use and benefit
of said tribe, the sum of two thousand dollars per annum for
five years next succeeding the ratification of this treaty,
and twelve hundred dollars per annum for the next ten years
following, the same to be expended under the direction of
the President of the United States for such objects as, in
his judgment, will be beneficial to the Indians, and advance
them in morals and knowledge of civilization.
The said tribe, after their removal to the reservation, are
to have the benefit of the services of the physician, mechanics,
farmers, teachers, and other employés provided for
in the treaty of the 15th October, 1864, in common with the
Klamaths, Moadocs, and Yahooskiu Snakes, and are also to have
the use of the mills and school-houses provided for in said
treaty, so far as may be necessary to them, and not to the
disadvantage of the other tribes; and, in addition, an interpreter
who understands the Snake language shall be provided by the
Government. Whenever, in the judgment of the President, the
proper time shall have arrived for an allotment of land in
severalty to the Indians upon the said reservation, a suitable
tract shall be set apart for each family of the said Woll-pah-pe
tribe, and peaceable possession of the same is guaranteed
The tribe are desirous of preventing the use of ardent spirits
among themselves, and it is therefore provided that any Indian
who brings liquor on to the reservation, or who has it in
his possession, may in addition to the penalties affixed by
law, have his or her proportion of the annuities withheld
for such time as the President may determine.
This treaty shall be obligatory upon the contracting parties
as soon as the same shall be ratified by the Senate of the
In testimony whereof, the said J. W. Perit Huntington, superintendent
of Indian affairs, and the undersigned chiefs and headmen
of the tribe aforesaid, have hereunto set their signatures
and seals, at the place and on the day and year above written.
- J. W. Perit Huntington, Superintendent Indian Affairs in Oregon. [SEAL.]
- Pah-ni-ne, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Hau-ni-noo-ey, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Ki-nau-ney, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Wa-ak-chau, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Chok-ko-si, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- She-zhe, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Che-em-ma, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Now-hoop-a-cow-c-, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Ki-po-weet-ka, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Hau-ne, or Shas-took, his x mark. [SEAL.]
- Sah-too-too-we, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Executed in our presence-
- W. V. Rinehart, major First Oregon Infantry.
- Wm. Kelly, captain First Cavalry, Oregon Volunteers.
- Lindsay Applegate.
- Wm. C. McKay, M. D., acting interpreter.
- Albert Applegate, second lieutenant, First Oregon Infantry, commanding escort.
- F. B. Chase.
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