Treaty with The Sauk and Foxes
October 21, 1837
Articles of a treaty made at the City of Washington, between
Carey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, thereto authorized
by the President of the United States, and the confederated
tribes of Sacs and Foxes, by their chiefs and delegates.
The Sacs and Foxes make to the United States the following
First. Of a tract of country containing 1,250,000 (one million
two hundred and fifty thousand) acres lying west and adjoining
the tract conveyed by them to the United States in the treaty
of September 21st, 1832. It is understood that the points
of termination for the present cession shall be the northern
and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey made
under the authority of the United States, and that a line
shall be drawn between them, so as to intersect a line extended
westwardly from the angle of said tract nearly opposite to
Rock Island as laid down in the above survey, so far as may
be necessary to include the number of acres hereby ceded,
which last mentioned line it is estimated will be about twenty-five
Second. Of all right or interest in the land ceded by said
confeder ated tribes on the 15th of July 1830, which might
be claimed by them, under the phraseology of the first article
of said treaty.
In consideration of the cessions contained in the preceding
article, the United States agree to the following stipulations
on their part:
First. To cause the land ceded to be surveyed at the expense
of the United States, and permanent and prominent land marks
established, in the presence of a deputation of the chiefs
of said confederated tribes.
Second. To pay the debts of the confederated tribes, which
may be ascertained to be justly due, and which may be admitted
by the Indians, to the amount of one hundred thousand dollars
($100,000) provided, that if all their just debts amount to
more than this sum, then their creditors are to be paid pro
rata upon their giving receipts in full; and if said debts
fall short of said sum, then the remainder to be paid to the
Indians. And provided also, That no claim for depredations
shall be paid out of said sum.
Third. To deliver to them goods, suited to their wants, at
cost, to the amount of twenty-eight thousand five hundred
Fourth. To expend, in the erection of two grist mills, and
the support of two millers for five years, ten thousand dollars
Fifth. To expend in breaking up and fencing in ground on
the land retained by said confederated tribes, and for other
beneficial objects, twenty-four thousand dollars ($24,000.)
Sixth. To expend in procuring the services of the necessary
number of laborers, and for other objects connected with aiding
them in agriculture, two thousand dollars ($2,000) a year,
for five years.
Seventh. For the purchase of horses and presents, to be delivered
to the chiefs and delegates on their arrival at St. Louis,
four thousand five hundred dollars ($4,500,) one thousand
dollars ($1,000) of which is in full satisfaction of any claim
said tribe may have on account of the stipulation for blacksmiths
in the treaty of 1832.
Eighth. To invest the sum of two hundred thousand dollars
($200,000) in safe State stocks, and to guarantee to the Indians,
an annual income of not less than five per cent. the said
interest to be paid to them each year, in the manner annuities
are paid, at such time and place, and in money or goods as
the tribe may direct. Provided, That it may be competent for
the President to direct that a portion of the same may, with
the consent of the Indians, be applied to education, or other
purposes calculated to improve them.
The two blacksmith's establishments, and the gunsmith's
establishment, to which the Sacs and Foxes are entitled under
treaties prior to this, shall be removed to, and be supported
in the country retained by them, and all other stipulations
in former treaties, inconsistent with this, or with their
residence, and the transaction of their business on their
retained land are hereby declared void.
The Sacs and Foxes agree to remove from the tract ceded,
with the exception of Keokuck's village, possession of
which may be retained for two years, within eight months from
the ratification of this treaty.
The expenses of this negotiation and of the chiefs and delegates
signing this treaty to this city, and to their homes, to be
paid by the United States.
This treaty to be binding upon the contracting parties when
the same shall be ratified by the United States.
In witness whereof the said Carey A. Harris, and the undersigned
chiefs and delegates of the said tribes, have hereunto set
their hands at the city of Washington, this 21st October A.
Sacs or Saukes:
- Kee-o-kuck, The Watchful Fox, principal chief of the confederated tribes,
- Wau-cai-chai, Crooked Sturgeon, a chief,
- A-shee-au-kon, Sun Fish, a chief,
- Pa-nau-se, Shedding Elk,
- Wau-wau-to-sa, Great Walker,
- Pa-sha-ka-se, The Deer,
- Appan-oze-o-ke-mar, The Hereditary Chief, (or He who was a Chief when a Child,)
- Waa-co-me, Clear Water, a chief,
- Kar-ka-no-we-nar, The Long-horned Elk,
- Nar-nar-he-keit, the Self-made Man,
- As-ke-puck-a-wau, The Green Track,
- Wa-pella, the Prince, a principal chief,
- Qua-qua-naa-pe-pua, the Rolling Eyes, a chief,
- Paa-ka-kar, the Striker,
- Waa-pa-shar-kon, the White Skin,
- Wa-pe-mauk, White Lyon,
- Nar-nar-wau-ke-hait, the Repenter, (or the Sorrowful,)
- Po-we-sheek, Shedding Bear, a (principal chief,)
- Con-no-ma-co, Long Nose Fox, a chief,(wounded,)
- Waa-co-shaa-shee, Red Nose Fox, a principal chief Fox tribe, (wounded,)
- An-non-e-wit, The Brave Man,
- Kau-kau-kee, The Crow,
- Kish-kee-kosh, The Man with one leg off.
Signed in presence of -
- Chauncey Bush, Secretary. Joseph M. Street, U. S. Indian Agent.
- Joshua Pilcher, Indian Agent.
- Geo. Davenport.
- J. F. A. Sanford.
- S. C. Stambaugh.
- P. G. Hambaugh.
- Antoine Le Claire, U. S. Indian Interpreter.
(To the Indian names are subjoined marks.)
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