Treaty with The Chippewa
July 29, 1837
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Peters
(the confluence of the St. Peters and Mississippi rivers)
in the Territory of Wisconsin, between the United States of
America, by their commissioner, Henry Dodge, Governor of said
Territory, and the Chippewa nation of Indians, by their chiefs
The said Chippewa nation cede to the United States all that
tract of country included within the following boundaries:
Beginning at the junction of the Crow Wing and Mississippi
rivers, between twenty and thirty miles above where the Mississippi
is crossed by the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude,
and running thence to the north point of Lake St. Croix, one
of the sources of the St. Croix river; thence to and along
the dividing ridge between the waters of Lake Superior and
those of the Mississippi, to the sources of the Ocha-sua-sepe
a tributary of the Chippewa river; thence to a point on the
Chippewa river, twenty miles below the outlet of Lake De Flambeau;
thence to the junction of the Wisconsin and Pelican rivers;
thence on an east course twenty-five miles; thence southerly,
on a course parallel with that of the Wisconsin river, to
the line dividing the territories of the Chippewas and Menomonies;
thence to the Plover Portage; thence along the southern boundary
of the Chippewa country, to the commencement of the boundary
line dividing it from that of the Sioux, half a days march
below the falls on the Chippewa river; thence with said boundary
line to the mouth of Wah-tap river, at its junction with the
Mississippi; and thence up the Mississippi to the place of
In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States
agree to make to the Chippewa nation, annually, for the term
of twenty years, from the date of the ratification of this
treaty, the following payments.
1. Nine thousand five hundred dollars, to be paid in money.
2. Nineteen thousand dollars, to be delivered in goods.
3. Three thousand dollars for establishing three blacksmiths
shops, supporting the blacksmiths, and furnishing them with
iron and steel.
4. One thousand dollars for farmers, and for supplying them
and the Indians, with implements of labor, with grain or seed;
and whatever else may be necessary to enable them to carry
on their agricultural pursuits.
5. Two thousand dollars in provisions.
6. Five hundred dollars in tobacco.
The provisions and tobacco to be delivered at the same time
with the goods, and the money to be paid; which time or times,
as well as the place or places where they are to be delivered,
shall be fixed upon under the direction of the President of
the United States.
The blacksmiths shops to be placed at such points in the Chippewa
country as shall be designated by the Superintendent of Indian
Affairs, or under his direction.
If at the expiration of one or more years the Indians should
prefer to receive goods, instead of the nine thousand dollars
agreed to be paid to them in money, they shall be at liberty
to do so. Or, should they conclude to appropriate a portion
of that annuity to the establishment and support of a school
or schools among them, this shall be granted them.
The sum of one hundred thousand dollars shall be paid by
the United States, to the half-breeds of the Chippewa nation,
under the direction of the President. It is the wish of the
Indians that their two sub-agents Daniel P. Bushnell, and
Miles M. Vineyard, superintend the distribution of this money
among their half-breed relations.
The sum of seventy thousand dollars shall be applied to the
payment, by the United States, of certain claims against the
Indians; of which amount twenty-eight thousand dollars shall,
at their request, be paid to William A. Aitkin, twenty-five
thousand to Lyman M. Warren, and the balance applied to the
liquidation of other just demands against them - which
they acknowledge to be the case with regard to that presented
by Hercules L. Dousman, for the sum of five thousand dollars;
and they request that it be paid.
The privilege of hunting, fishing, and gathering the wild
rice, upon the lands, the rivers and the lakes included in
the territory ceded, is guarantied to the Indians, during
the pleasure of the President of the United States.
This treaty shall be obligatory from and after its ratification
by the President and Senate of the United States.
Done at St. Peters in the Territory of Wisconsin the twenty-ninth
day of July eighteen hundred and thirty-seven.
Henry Dodge, Commissioner.
From Leech lake:
- Aish-ke-bo-ge-koshe, or Flat Mouth,
- R-che-o-sau-ya, or the Elder Brother.
- Pe-zhe-kins, the Young Buffalo,
- Ma-ghe-ga-bo, or La Trappe,
- O-be-gwa-dans, the Chief of the Earth,
- Wa-bose, or the Rabbit,
- Che-a-na-quod, or the Big Cloud.
From Gull lake and Swan river:
- Pa-goo-na-kee-zhig, or the Hole in the Day,
- Songa-ko-mig, or the Strong Ground.
- Wa-boo-jig, or the White Fisher,
- Ma-cou-da, or the Bear's Heart.
From St. Croix river:
- Pe-zhe-ke, or the Buffalo,
- Ka-be-ma-be, or the Wet Month.
- Pa-ga-we-we-wetung, Coming Home Hollowing,
- Ya-banse, or the Young Buck,
- Kis-ke-ta-wak, or the Cut Ear.
From Lake Courteoville:
- Pa-qua-a-mo, or the Wood Pecker.
From Lac De Flambeau:
- Pish-ka-ga-ghe, or the White Crow,
- Na-wa-ge-wa, or the Knee,
- O-ge-ma-ga, or the Dandy,
- Pa-se-quam-jis, or the Commissioner,
- Wa-be-ne-me, or the White Thunder.
From La Pointe, (on Lake Superior):
- Pe-zhe-ke, or the Buffalo,
- Ta-qua-ga-na, or Two Lodges Meeting,
From Mille Lac:
- Wa-shask-ko-kone, or Rats Liver,
- Wen-ghe-ge-she-guk, or the First Day.
- Ada-we-ge-shik, or Both Ends of the Sky,
- Ka-ka-quap, or the Sparrow.
From Sandy Lake:
- Ka-nan-da-wa-win-zo, or Le Brocheux,
- We-we-shan-shis, the Bad Boy, or Big Mouth,
- Ke-che-wa-me-te-go, or the Big Frenchman.
- Na-ta-me-ga-bo, the Man that stands First,
- Sa-ga-ta-gun, or Spunk.
From Snake river:
- Naudin, or the Wind,
- Sha-go-bai, or the Little Six,
- Pay-ajik, or the Lone Man,
- Na-qua-na-bie, or the Feather.
- Wa-me-te-go-zhins, the Little Frenchman,
- Sho-ne-a, or Silver.
From Fond du Lac, (on Lake Superior):
- Mang-go-sit, or the Loons Foot,
- Shing-go-be, or the Spruce.
From Red Cedar lake:
- Mont-so-mo, or the Murdering Yell.
From Red lake:
- Francois Goumean (a half breed).
From Leech lake:
- Sha-wa-ghe-zhig, or the Sounding Sky,
- Wa-zau-ko-ni-a, or Yellow Robe.
Signed in presence of -
- Verplanck Van Antwerp, Secretary to the Commissioner.
- M. M. Vineyard, U. S. Sub-Indian Agent.
- Daniel P. Bushnell.
- Law. Taliaferro, Indian Agent at St. Peters.
- Martin Scott, Captain, Fifth Regiment Infantry.
- J. Emerson, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army.
- H. H. Sibley.
- H. L. Dousman.
- S. C. Stambaugh.
- E. Lockwood.
- Lyman M. Warren. J.
- N. Nicollet.
- Harmen Van Antwerp.
- Wm. H. Forbes.
- Jean Baptiste Dubay, Interpreter.
- Peter Quinn, Interpreter.
- S. Campbell, U. S. Interpreter.
- Stephen Bonga, Interpreter.
- Wm. W Coriell.
- (To the Indian names are subjoined a mark and seal.)
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