Treaty with The Wyandot, etc
August 3rd, 1795
A treaty of peace between the United States of America
and the Tribes of Indians, called the Wyandots, Delawares,
Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chipewas, Putawatimes, Miamis, Eel-river,
Weea's, Kickapoos, Piankashaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies,
and to restore harmony and a friendly intercourse between
the said United States, and Indian tribes; Anthony Wayne,
major-general, commanding the army of the United States, and
sole commissioner for the good purposes above-mentioned, and
the said tribes of Indians, by their Sachems, chiefs, and
warriors, met together at Greeneville, the head quarters of
the said army, have agreed on the following articles, which,
when ratified by the President, with the advice and consent
of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them
and the said Indian tribes.
Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby established,
and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse shall take
place, between the said United States and Indian tribes.
All prisoners shall on both sides be restored. The Indians,
prisoners to the United States, shall be immediately set at
liberty. The people of the United States, still remaining
prisoners among the Indians, shall be delivered up in ninety
days from the date hereof, to the general or commanding officer
at Greeneville, Fort Wayne or Fort Defiance; and ten chiefs
of the said tribes shall remain at Greeneville as hostages,
until the delivery of the prisoners shall be effected.
The general boundary line between the lands of the United
States, and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin
at the mouth of Cayahoga river, and run thence up the same
to the portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the
Muskingum; thence down that branch to the crossing place above
Fort Lawrence; thence westerly to a fork of that branch of
the great Miami river running into the Ohio, at or near which
fork stood Loromie's store, and where commences the portage
between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's river,
which is a branch of the Miami, which runs into Lake Erie;
thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on
a branch of the Wabash; then south-westerly in a direct line
to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth
of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. And in consideration of the
peace now established; of the goods formerly received from
the United States; of those now to be delivered, and of the
yearly delivery of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter,
and to indemnify the United States for the injuries and expenses
they have sustained during the war; the said Indians tribes
do hereby cede and relinquish forever, all their claims to
the lands lying eastwardly and southwardly of the general
boundary line now described; and these lands, or any part
of them, shall never hereafter be made a cause or pretence,
on the part of the said tribes or any of them, of war or injury
to the United States, or any of the people thereof.
And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the
returning friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence
in the United States, and desire to provide for their accommodation,
and for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial
to both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the
United States the following pieces of land; to-wit.
(1.) One piece of land six miles square at or near Loromies
store before mentioned.
(2.) One piece two miles square at the head of the navigable
water or landing on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's
(3.) One piece six miles square at the head of the navigable
water of the Au-Glaize river.
(4.) One piece six miles square at the confluence of the
Au-Glaize and Miami rivers, where Fort Defiance now stands.
(5.) One piece six miles square at or near the confluence
of the rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where
Fort Wayne now stands, or near it.
(6.) One piece two miles square on the Wabash river at the
end of the portage from the Miami of the lake, and about eight
miles westward from Fort Wayne.
(7.) One piece six miles square at the Ouatanon or old Weea
towns on the Wabash river.
(8.) One piece twelve miles square at the British fort on
the Miami of the lake at the foot of the rapids.
(9.) One piece six miles square at the mouth of the said
river where it empties into the Lake.
(10.) One piece six miles square upon Sandusky lake, where
a fort formerly stood.
(11.) One piece two miles square at the lower rapids of Sandusky
(12.) The post of Detroit and all the land to the north,
the west and the south of it, of which the Indian title has
been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English
governments; and so much more land to be annexed to the district
of Detroit as shall be comprehended between the river Rosine
on the south, lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the
general course whereof shall be six miles distant from the
west end of lake Erie, and Detroit river.
(13.) The post of M ichillimackinac, an d all the land on
the island, on which that post stands, and the main land adjacent,
of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or
grants to the French or English governments; and a piece of
land on the main to the north of the island, to measure six
miles on lake Huron, or the strait between lakes Huron and
Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water of
the lake or strait, and also the island De Bois Blanc, being
an extra and voluntary gift of the Chipewa nation.
(14.) One piece of land six miles square at the mouth of
Chikago river, emptying into the south-west end of Lake Michigan,
where a fort formerly stood.
(15.) One piece twelve miles square at or near the mouth
of the Illinois river, emptying into the Mississippi.
(16.) One piece six miles square at the old Piorias fort
and village, near the south end of the Illinois lake on said
Illinois river: And whenever the United States shall think
proper to survey and mark the boundaries of the lands hereby
ceded to them, they shall give timely notice thereof to the
said tribes of Indians, that they may appoint some of their
wise chiefs to attend and see that the lines are run according
to the terms of this treaty.
And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the
United States a free passage by land and by water, as one
and the other shall be found convenient, through their country,
along the chain of posts herein before mentioned; that is
to say, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid at
or near Loromie's store, thence along said portage to
the St. Mary's, and down the same to Fort Wayne, and
then down the Miami to lake Erié: again from the commencement
of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage
from thence to the river Au-Glaize, and down the same to its
junction with the Miami at Fort Defiance: again from the commencement
of the portage aforesaid, to Sandusky river, and down the
same to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the
post which shall be taken at or near the foot of the rapids
of the Miami of the lake: and from thence to Detroit. Again
from the mouth of Chikago, to the commencement of the portage,
between that river and the Illinois, and down the Illinois
river to the Mississippi, also from Fort Wayne along the portage
aforesaid which leads to the Wabash, and then down the Wabash
to the Ohio. And the said Indian tribes will also allow to
the people of the United States the free use of the harbors
and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining the Indian
lands, for sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land
their cargoes where necessary for their safety.
In consideration of the peace now established and of the
cessions and relinquishments of lands made in the preceding
article by the said tribes of Indians, and to manifest the
liberality of the United States, as the great means of rendering
this peace strong and perpetual; the United States relinquish
their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river
Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and southward
of the Great Lakes and the waters uniting them, according
to the boundary line agreed on by the United States and the
king of Great-Britain, in the treaty of peace made between
them in the year 1783. But from this relinquishment by the
United States, the following tracts of land, are explicitly
excepted. 1st. The tract of one hundred and fifty thousand
acres near the rapids of the river Ohio, which has been assigned
to General Clark, for the use of himself and his warriors.
2d. The post of St. Vincennes on the river Wabash, and the
lands adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished.
3d. The lands at all other places in possession of the French
people and other white settlers among them, of which the Indian
title has been extinguished as mentioned in the 3d article;
and 4th. The post of fort Massac towards the mouth of the
Ohio. To which several parcels of land so excepted, the said
tribes relinquish all the title and claim which they or any
of them may have.
And for the same considerations and with the same views as
above mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said
Indian tribes a quantity of goods to the value of twenty thousand
dollars, the receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge; and
henceforward every year forever the United States will deliver
at some convenient place northward of the river Ohio, like
useful goods, suited to the circumstances of the Indians,
of the value of nine thousand five hundred dollars; reckoning
that value at the first cost of the goods in the city or place
in the United States, where they shall be procured. The tribes
to which those goods are to be annually delivered, and the
proportions in which they are to be delivered, are the following.
1st. To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand dollars.
2d. To the Delawares, the amount of one thousand dollars.
3d. To the Shawanese, the amount of one thousand dollars.
4th. To the Miamis, the amount of one thousand dollars.
5th. To the Ottawas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
6th. To the Chippewas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
7th. To the Putawatimes, the amount of one thousand dollars.
8th. And to the Kickapoo, Weea, Eel-river, Piankashaw and
Kaskaskias tribes, the amount of five hundred dollars each.
Provided, That if either of the said tribes shall hereafter
at an annual delivery of their share of the goods aforesaid,
desire that a part of their annuity should be furnished in
domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other utensils
convenient for them, and in compensation to useful artificers
who may reside with or near them, and be employed for their
benefit, the same shall at the subsequent annual deliveries
be furnished accordingly.
To prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands relinquished
by the United States in the fourth article, it is now explicitly
declared, that the meaning of that relinquishment is this:
The Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, are quietly
to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so
long as they please, without any molestation from the United
States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed
to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to be sold
only to the United States; and until such sale, the United
States will protect all the said Indian tribes in the quiet
enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United
States, and against all other white persons who intrude upon
the same. And the said Indian tribes again acknowledge themselves
to be under the protection of the said United States and no
other power whatever.
If any citizen of the United States, or any other white person
or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands now relinquished
by the United States, such citizen or other person shall be
out of the protection of the United States; and the Indian
tribe, on whose land the settlement shall be made, may drive
off the settler, or punish him in such manner as they shall
think fit; and because such settlements made without the consent
of the United States, will be injurious to them as well as
to the Indians, the United States shall be at liberty to break
them up, and remove and punish the settlers as they shall
think proper, and so effect that protection of the Indian
lands herein before stipulated.
The said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall
be at liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which
they have now ceded to the United States, without hindrance
or molestation, so long as they demean themselves peaceably,
and offer no injury to the people of the United States.
Trade shall be opened with the said Indian tribes; and they
do hereby respectively engage to afford protection to such
persons, with their property, as shall be duly licensed to
reside among them for the purpose of trade, and to their agents
and servants; but no person shall be permitted to reside at
any of their towns or hunting camps as a trader, who is not
furnished with a license for that purpose, under the hand
and seal of the superintendent of the department north-west
of the Ohio, or such other person as the President of the
United States shall authorize to grant such licenses; to the
end, that the said Indians may not be imposed on in their
trade. And if any licensed trader shall abuse his privilege
by unfair dealing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his license
shall be taken from him, and he shall be further punished
according to the laws of the United States. And if any person
shall intrude himself as a trader, without such license, the
said Indians shall take and bring him before the superintendent
or his deputy, to be dealth with according to law. And to
prevent impositions by forged licenses, the said Indians shall
at least once a year give information to the superintendant
or his deputies, of the names of the traders residing among
Lest the firm peace and friendship now established should
be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, the United
States, and the said Indian tribes agree, that for injuries
done by individuals on either side, no private revenge or
retaliation shall take place; but instead thereof, complaint
shall be made by the party injured, to the other: By the said
Indian tribes, or any of them, to the President of the United
States, or the superintendent by him appointed; and by the
superintendent or other person appointed by the President,
to the principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of the
tribe to which the offender belongs; and such prudent measures
shall then be pursued as shall be necessary to preserve the
said peace and friendship unbroken, until the Legislature
(or Great Council) of the United States, shall make other
equitable provision in the case, to the satisfaction of both
parties. Should any Indian tribes meditate a war against the
United States or either of them, and the same shall come to
the knowledge of the before-mentioned tribes, or either of
them, they do hereby engage to give immediate notice thereof
to the general or officer commanding the troops of the United
States, at the nearest post. And should any tribe, with hostile
intentions against the United States, or either of them, attempt
to pass through their country, they will endeavor to prevent
the same, and in like manner give information of such attempt,
to the general or officer commanding, as soon as possible,
that all causes of mistrust and suspicion may be avoided between
them and the United States. In like manner the United States
shall give notice to the said Indian tribes of any harm that
may be meditated against them, or either of them, that shall
come to their knowledge; and do all in their power to hinder
and prevent the same, that the friendship between them may
All other treaties heretofore made between the United States
and the said Indian tribes, or any of them, since the treaty
of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, that
come within the purview of this treaty, shall henceforth cease
and become void.
In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the sachems
and war chiefs of the beforementioned nations and tribes of
Indians, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals.
Done at Greenville, in the territory of the United States
north west of the river Ohio, on the third day of August,
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five.
- Tarhe, or Crane, his x mark, [L. S.]
- J. Williams, jun. his x mark, [L. S.]
- Teyyaghtaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Haroenyou, or half king's son, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Tehaawtorens, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Awmeyeeray, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Stayetah, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Shateyyaronyah, or Leather Lips, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Daughshuttayah, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Shaawrunthe, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Tetabokshke, or Grand Glaize King, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Lemantanquis, or Black King, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wabatthoe, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Maghpiway, or Red Feather, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Kikthawenund, or Anderson, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Bukongehelas, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Peekeelund, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wellebawkeelund, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Peekeetelemund, or Thomas Adams, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Kishkopekund, or Captain Buffalo, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Amenahehan, or Captain Crow, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Queshawksey, or George Washington, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Weywinquis, or Billy Siscomb, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Moses, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Misquacoonacaw, or Red Pole, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Cutthewekasaw, or Black Hoof, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Kaysewaesekah, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Weythapamattha, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nianymseka, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Waytheah, or Long Shanks, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Weyapiersenwaw, or Blue Jacket, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nequetaughaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Hahgooseekaw, or Captain Reed, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Augooshaway, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Keenoshameek, his x mark, [L. S.]
- La Malice, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Machiwetah, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Thowonawa, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Secaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Mashipinashiwish, or Bad Bird, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nahshogashe, (from Lake Superior,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Kathawasung, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Masass, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nemekass, or Little Thunder, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Peshawkay, or Young Ox, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nanguey, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Meenedohgeesogh, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Peewanshemenogh, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Weymegwas, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Gobmaatick, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Chegonickska, (an Ottawa from Sandusky,) his x mark, [L. S.]
Pattawatimas of the river St. Joseph:
- Thupenebu, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nawac, (for himself and brother Etsimethe,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nenanseka, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Keesass, or Run, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Kabamasaw, (for himself and brother Chisaugan,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Sugganunk, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wapmeme, or White Pigeon, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wacheness, (for himself and brother Pedagoshok,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wabshicawnaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- La Chasse, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Meshegethenogh, (for himself and brother Wawasek,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Hingoswash, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Anewasaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nawbudgh, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Missenogomaw, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Waweegshe, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Thawme, or Le Blanc, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Geeque, (for himself and brother Shewinse,) his x mark, [L. S.]
Pattawatimas of Huron:
- Okia, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Chamung, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Segagewan, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nanawme, (for himself and brother A. Gin,) his x mark, [L. S.]
- Marchand, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wenameac, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nagohquangogh, or Le Gris, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Meshekunnoghquoh, or Little Turtle, his x mark, [L. S.]
Miamis and Eel Rivers:
- Peejeewa, or Richard Ville, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Cochkepoghtogh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Eel River Tribe:
- Shamekunnesa, or Soldier, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wapamangwa, or the White Loon, his x mark, [L. S.]
Weas, for themselves and the Piankeshaws:
- Amacunsa, or Little Beaver, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Acoolatha, or Little Fox, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Francis, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kickapoos and Kaskaskias:
- Keeawhah, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Nemighka, or Josey Renard, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Paikeekanogh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Delawares of Sandusky:
- Hawkinpumiska, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Peyamawksey, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Reyntueco, (of the Six Nations, living at Sandusky,) his x mark, [L. S.]
In presence of (the word "goods" in the sixth line
of the third article; the word "before" in the twenty-sixth
line of the third article; the words "five hundred"
in the tenth line of the fourth article, and the word "Piankeshaw"
in the fourteenth line of the fourth article, being first
- H. De Butts, first aid de camp and secretary to Major General Wayne.
- Wm. H. Harrison, aid de camp to Major General Wayne.
- T. Lewis, aid de camp to Major General Wayne.
- James O'Hara, quartermaster general.
- John Mills, major of infantry and adjutant general.
- Caleb Swan, P. M. T. U. S.
- Geo. Demter, lieutenant artillery.
- P. Frs. La Fontaine.
- Ant. Lasselle.
- H. Lasselle.
- Jn. Beau Bien.
- David Jones, chaplain U. S. S.
- Lewis Beaufait.
- R. Lachambre.
- Jas. Pepen.
- Baties Coutien.
- P. Navarre.
- Wm. Wells.
- Jacques Lasselle.
- M. Morins.
- Bt. Sans Crainte.
- Christopher Miller.
- Robert Wilson.
- Abraham Williams, his x mark.
- Isaac Zane, his x mark.
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