Treaty with The Ponca
June 9, 1825
FOR the purposes of perpetuating the friendship which
has heretofore existed, as also to remove all future cause
of discussion or dissension, as it respects trade and friendship
between the United States and their citizens, and the Poncar
tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America,
by Brigadier General Henry Atkinson, of the United States'
Army, and Major Benjamin O'Fallon, Indian Agent, with
full powers and authority, specially appointed and commissioned
for that purpose of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs,
Headmen, and Warriors, of the Poncar tribe of Indians, on
behalf of said tribe, of the other part, have made and entered
into the following articles and conditions, which, when ratified
by the President of the United States, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties - to
It is admitted by the Poncar tribe of Indians, that they
reside within the territorial limits of the United States,
acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection. The
said tribe also admit the right of the United States to regulate
all trade and intercourse with them.
The United States agree to receive the Poncar tribe of Indians
into their friendship, and under their protection, and to
extend to them, from time to time, such benefits and acts
of kindness as may be convenient, and seem just and proper
to the President of the United States.
All trade and intercourse with the Poncar tribe shall be
transacted at such place or places as may be designated and
pointed out by the President of the United States, through
his agents; and none but American citizens, duly authorized
by the United States, shall be admitted to trade or hold intercourse
with said tribe of Indians.
That the Poncar tribe may be accommodated with such articles
of merchandise, . as their necessities may demand, the
United States agree to admit and license traders to hold intercourse
with said tribe, under mild and equitable regulations: in
consideration of which, the Poncar tribe bind themselves to
extend protection to the persons and the property of the traders,
and the persons legally employed under them, whilst they remain
within the limits of the Poncar district of country. And the
said Poncar tribe further agree, that if any foreigner, or
other person not legally authorized by the United States,
shall come into their district of country, for the purposes
of trade or other views, they will apprehend such person or
persons, and deliver him or them to some United States'
superintendent, or agent of Indian Affairs, or to the Commandant
of the nearest military post, to be dealt with according to
law. And they further agree to give safe conduct to all persons
who may be legally authorized by the United States to pass
through their country; and to protect, in their persons and
property, all agents or other persons sent by the United States
to reside temporarily among them.
That the friendship which is now established between the
United States and the Poncar tribe should not be interrupted
by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed, that
for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge or retaliation
shall take place, but instead thereof, complaints shall be
made, by the party injured, to the superintendent or agent
of Indian affairs, or other person appointed by the President;
and it shall be the duty of the said Chiefs, upon complaint
being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or persons
against whom the complaint is made, to the end that he or
they may be punished agreeably to the laws of the United States.
And, in like manner, if any robbery, violence, or murder,
shall be committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said
tribe, the person or persons so offending shall be tried,
and if found guilty shall be punished in like manner as if
the injury had been done to a white man. And it is agreed,
that the Chiefs of said Poncar tribe shall, to the utmost
of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other
property, which may be stolen or taken from any citizen or
citizens of the United States, by any individual or individuals
of said tribe; and the property so recovered shall be forthwith
delivered to the agents or other person authorized to receive
it, that it may be restored to the proper owner. And the United
States hereby guaranty to any Indian or Indians of said tribe,
a full indemnification for any horses or other property which
may be stolen from them by any of their citizens: Provided,
That the property so stolen cannot be recovered, and that
sufficient proof is produced that it was actually stolen by
a citizen of the United States. And the said Poncar tribe
engage, on the requisition or demand of the President of the
United States, or of the agents, to deliver up any white man
resident among them.
And the Chiefs and Warriors, as aforesaid, promise and engage,
that their tribe will never, by sale, exchange, or as presents,
supply any nation or tribe of Indians, not in amity with the
United States, with guns, ammunition, or other implements
Done at the Poncar Village, at the mouth of White Paint creek,
the first below the Qui Carre river, this 9th day of June,
A. D. 1825, and of the independence of the United States the
In testimony whereof, the said commissioners, Henry Atkinson
and Benjamin O'Fallon, and the chiefs, head men, and
warriors, of the Poncar tribe, have hereunto set their hands
and affixed their seals.
- H. Atkinson, brigadier-general, U. S. Army, [L. S.]
- Benj. O'Fallon, United States agent Indian Affairs, [L. S.]
- Shu-de-gah-he, or He who makes Smoke, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Ish-ca-da-bee, or Child Chief, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wah-ha-nee-che, or He who hides something, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wah, or The Hoe, his x mark, [L. S.]
- O-nam-ba-haa, or Lightning, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Ti-e-kee-ree, or Big Head with tangled hair, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wa-we-shu-shee, or The Brave, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Ou-de-cowee, or the one that has been wounded, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Ne-ou-gree, or Prairie apple, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Woh-ge-a-mussee, or The flying iron, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Pee-la-ga, or Buffalo, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wah-buc-kee, or The bull that leads, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Wah-ha-nega, or He that has no knife, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Mah-shar-harree, or He that walks on land, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Mach-souch-kee-na-pabee, or He that fears no bears, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Ca-hee-tha-bee, or Black raven, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Gah-he-ga, or The relative of the Chiefs, his mark, [L. S.]
- Na-hee-tapee, or He that stamps, his x mark, [L. S.]
- Na-ne-pa-shee, or One that knows, his x mark, [L. S.]
- H. Leavenworth, colonel, U. S. Army.
- S. W. Kearny, brevet major First Infantry.
- D. Ketchum, major, U. S. Army.
- G. H. Kennerley, U. S. S. Indian agent.
- John Gale, surgeon, U. S. Army.
- J. Gantt, captain, Sixth Infanty.
- Wm. Armstrong, captain, Sixth Regiment Infantry.
- S. MacRee, lieutenant, First Infantry.
- J. Rogers, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.
- Thomas Noel, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.
- S. Wragg, adjutant, First Regiment Infantry.
- R. Holmes, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.
- Thos. P. Gwynn, lieutenant, First Infantry.
- Levi Nute, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.
- Jas. W. Kingsbury, lieutenant, First Regiment Infantry.
- M. W. Batman, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry.
- Wm. L. Harris, First Infantry.
- R. M. Coleman, assistant surgeon, U. S. Army.
- Wm. Gordon,
- A. Langman,
- P. X. Promo,
- A. L. Langham, Secretary to the Commission.
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