Treaty With The Cherokee
July 2nd, 1791
A Treaty of Peace and Friendship made and concluded between
the President of the United States of America, on the Part and Behalf
of the said States, and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, of
the Cherokee Nation of Indians, on the part aide Behalf of the said
The parties being desirous of establishing permanent peace and
friendship between the United States and the said Cherokee Nation,
and the citizens and members thereof, and to remove the causes of
war, by ascertaining their limits and making other necessary, just
and friendly arrangements: The President of the United States, by
William Blount, Governor of the territory of the United States of
America, south of the river Ohio, and Superintendant of Indian affairs
for the southern district, who is vested with full powers for these
purposes, by and with-the advice and consent of the Senate of the
United States. And the Cherokee Nation, by the undersigned Chiefs
and Warriors representing the said nation, have agreed to the following
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens
of the United States of America, and all the individuals composing
the whole Cherokee nation of Indians.
The undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, for themselves and all parts
of the Cherokee nation do acknowledge themselves and the said Cherokee
nation, to be under the protection of the said United States of
America, and of no other sovereign whosoever; and they also stipulate
that the said Cherokee nation will not hold any treaty with any
foreign power, individual state, or with individuals of any state.
The Cherokee nation shall deliver to the Governor of the territory
of the United States of America, south of the river Ohio, on or
before the first day of April next, at this place, all persons who
are now prisoners, captured by them from any part of the United
States: And the United States shall on or before the same day, and
at the same place, restore to the Cherokees, all the prisoners now
in captivity, which the citizens of the United States have captured
The boundary between the citizens of the United States and the
Cherokee nation, is and shall be as follows: Beginning at the top
of the Currahee mountain, where the Creek line passes it; thence
a direct line to Tugelo river; thence northeast to the Occunna mountain,
and over the same along the South-Carolina Indian boundary to the
North-Carolina boundary; thence north to a point from which a line
is to be extended to the river Clinch, that shall pass the Holston
at the ridge which divides the waters running into Little River
from those running into the Tennessee; thence up the river Clinch
to Campbell's line, and along the same to the top of Cumberland
mountain; thence a direct line to the Cumberland river where the
Kentucky road crosses it; thence down the Cumberland river to a
point from which a south west line will strike the ridge which divides
the waters of Cumberland from those of Duck river, forty miles above
Nashville; thence down the said ridge to a point from whence a south
west line will strike the mouth of Duck river.
And in order to preclude forever all disputes relative to the said
boundary, the same shall be ascertained, and marked plainly by three
persons appointed on the part of the United States, and three Cherokees
on the part of their nation.
And in order to extinguish forever all claims of the Cherokee nation,
or any part thereof, to any of the land lying to the right of the
line above described. beginning as aforesaid at the Currahee mountain,
it is hereby agreed, that in addition to the consideration heretofore
made for the said land, the United States will cause certain valuable
goods, to be immediately delivered to the undersigned Chiefs and
Warriors, for the use of their nation; and the said United States
will also cause the sum of one thousand dollars to be paid annually
to the said Cherokee nation. And the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors,
do hereby for themselves and the whole Cherokee nation, their heirs
and descendants, for the considerations above-mentioned, release,
quit-claim, relinquish and cede, all the land to the right of the
line described, and beginning as aforesaid.
It is stipulated and agreed, that the citizens and inhabitants
of the United States, shall have a free and unmolested use of a
road from Washington district to Mero district, and of the navigation
of the Tennessee river.
It is agreed on the part of the Cherokees, that the United States
shall have the sole and exclusive right of regulating their trade.
The United States solemnly guarantee to the Cherokee nation, all
their lands not hereby ceded.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being
an Indian, shall settle on any of the Cherokees' lands, such person
shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the Cherokees
may punish him or not, as they please.
No citizen or inhabitant of the United States, shall attempt to
hunt or destroy the game on the lands of the Cherokees; nor shall
any citizen or inhabitant go into the Cherokee country, without
a passport first obtained from the Governor of some one of the United
States, or territorial districts, or such other person as the President
of the United States may from time to time authorize to grant the
If any Cherokee Indian or Indians, or person residing among them,
or who shall take refuge in their nation, shall steal a horse from,
or commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any citizens
or inhabitants of the United States, the Cherokee nation shall be
bound to deliver him or them up, to be punished according to the
laws of the United States.
If any citizen or inhabitant of the United States, or of either
of the territorial districts of the United States, shall go into
any town, settlement or territory belonging to the Cherokees, and
shall there commit any crime upon, or trespass against the person
or property of any peaceable and friendly Indian or Indians, which
if committed within the jurisdiction of any state, or within the
jurisdiction of either of the said districts, against a citizen
or white inhabitant thereof, would be punishable by the laws of
such state or district, such offender or offenders, shall be subject
to the same punishment, and shall be proceeded against in the same
manner as if the of fence had been committed within the jurisdiction
of the state or district to which he or they may belong against
a citizen or white inhabitant thereof.
In case of violence on the persons or property of the individuals
of either party, neither retaliation or reprisal shall be committed
by the other, until satisfaction shall have been demanded of the
party of which the aggressor is and shall have been refused.
The Cherokees shall give notice to the citizens of the United States,
of any designs which they may know, or suspect to be formed in any
neighboring tribe, or by any person whatever, against the peace
and interest of the United States.
That the Cherokee nation may be led to a greater degree of civilization,
and to become herdsmen and cultivators, instead of remaining in
a state of hunters, the United States will from time to time furnish
gratuitously the said nation with useful implements of husbandry,
and further to assist the said nation in so desirable a pursuit,
and at the same time to establish a certain mode of communication,
the United States will send such, and so many persons to reside
in said nation as they may judge proper, not exceeding four in number,
who shall qualify themselves to act as interpreters. These persons
shall have lands assigned by the Cherokees for cultivation for themselves
and their successors in office; but they shall be precluded exercising
any kind of traffic.
All animosities for past grievances shall henceforth cease, and
the contracting parties will carry the foregoing treaty into full
execution with all good faith and sincerity.
This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracting
parties as soon as the same shall have been ratified by the President
of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate
of the United States. In witness of all and every thing herein determined
between the United States of America and the whole Cherokee nation,
the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the treaty
ground on the bank of the Holston, near the mouth of the French
Broad, within the United States, this second day of July, in the
year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one.
William Blount, governor in and over the territory of the United
States of America south of the river Ohio, and superintendent of
Indian Affairs for the southern district,
- Chuleoah, or the Boots, his x mark,
- Squollecuttah, or Hanging Maw, his x mark,
- Oecunna,or the Badger,his x mark,
- Enoleh, or Black Fox, his x mark,
- Nontuaka, or the Northward, his x mark,
- Tekakiska, his x mark,
- Chutloh, or King Fisher, his x mark,
- Tuckaseh,orTerrapin,his x mark,
- Kateh, his x mark,
- Kunnochatutloh, or the Crane, his x mark,
- Canquillehanah, or the Thigh, his x mark,
- Chesquotteleneh, or Yellow Bird, his x mark,
- Chickasawtehe, or Chickasaw Killer, his x mark,
- Tuskegatehe, Tuskega Killer, his x mark,
- Kulsatehe, his x mark,
- Tinkshalene, his x mark,
- Sawntteh, or Slave Catcher, his x mark,
- Auknah, his x mark,
- Oosenaleh, his x mark,
- Kenotetah, or Rising Fawn, his x mark,
- Kanetetoka, or Standing Turkey, his x mark,
- Yonewatleh, or Bear at Home, his x mark,
- Long Will, his x mark,
- Kunoskeskie, or John Watts, his x mark,
- Nenetooyah, or Bloody Fellow, his x mark,
- Chuquilatague, or Double Head his x mark,
- Koolaquah, or Big Acorn, his x mark,
- Too wayelloh, or Bold Hunter, his x mark,
- Jahleoonoyehka, or Middle Striker, his x mark,
- Kinnesah, or Cabin, his x mark,
- Tullotehe, or Two Killer, his x mark,
- Kaalouske, or Stopt Still, his x mark,
- Kulsatche, his x mark,
- Auquotague, the Little Turkey's Son, his x mark,
- Talohteske, or Upsetter, his x mark,
- Cheakoneske, or Otter Lifter, his x mark,
- Keshukaune, or She Reigns, his x mark,
- Toonaunailoh, his x mark,
- Teesteke, or Common Disturber his x mark,
- Robin McClemore
- John Thompson, Interpreter.
- James Cery, Interpreter.
Done in presence of-
- Dan'l Smith, Secretary Territory United States south of the
- Thomas Kennedy, of Kentucky.
- Jas. Robertson, of Mero District
- Claiborne Watkins, of Virginia.
- Jno. McWhitney, of Georgia.
- Fauche, of Georgia.
- Titus Ogden, North Carolina.
- Jno. Chisolm, Washington District.
- Robert King.
- Thomas Gegg.
Additional Article To the Treaty made between the United States
and the Cherokees on the second day of July, one thousand seven
hundred and ninety-one.
It is hereby mutually agreed between Henry Knox, Secretary of War,
duly authorized thereto in behalf of the United States, on the one
part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors, in behalf of them
selves and the Cherokee nation, on the other part, that the following
article shall be added to and considered as part of the treaty made
between the United States and the said Cherokee nation on the second
day of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one; to wit:
The sum to be paid annually by the United States to the Cherokee
nation of Indians, in consideration of the relinquishment of land,
as stated in the treaty made with them on the second day of July,
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, shall be one thousand
five hundred dollars instead of one thousand dollars, mentioned
in the said treaty.
In testimony whereof, the said Henry Knox, Secretary of War, and
the said chiefs and warriors of the Cherokee nation, have hereunto
set their hands and seals, in the city of Philadelphia, this seventeenth
day of February, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred
- H. Knox, Secretary of War,
- Iskagua, or Clear Sky, his x mark (formerly Nenetooyah, or Bloody
- Nontuaka, or the Northward, his x mark,
- Chutloh, or King Fisher, his x mark,
- Katigoslah, or the Prince, his x mark,
- Teesteke, or Common Disturber, his x mark,
- Suaka, or George Miller, his x mark,
In presence of-
- Thomas Grooter.
- Jno. Stagg, Jr.
- Leonard D. Shaw
- James Cery, sworn intrepreter to the Cherokee Nation.
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