Treaty with Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc
September 17, 1851
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in
the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of
Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners
specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United
States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of
the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River,
east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and
New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes,
Crows. Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras, parties
of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A. D. one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.*
The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty. having assembled
for the purpose of establishing and confirming peaceful relations
amongst themselves, do hereby covenant and agree to abstain in future
from all hostilities whatever against each other, to maintain good
faith and friendship in all their mutual intercourse, and to make
an effective and lasting peace.
The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize the right of the United
States Government to establish roads, military and other posts,
within their respective territories.
In consideration of the rights and privileges acknowledged in the
preceding article, the United States bind themselves to protect
the aforesaid Indian nations against the commission of all depredations
by the people of the said United States, after the ratification
of this treaty.
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby agree and bind themselves
to make restitution or satisfaction for any wrongs committed, after
the ratification of this treaty, by any band or individual of their
people, on the people of the United States, whilst lawfully residing
in or passing through their respective territories.
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and acknowledge
the following tracts of country, included within the metes and boundaries
hereinafter designated, as their respective territories, viz:
territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah Nation, commencing the mouth
of the White Earth River, on the Missouri River: thence in a southwesterly
direction to the forks of the Platte River: thence up the north
fork of the Platte River to a point known as the Red Bute, or where
the road leaves the river; thence along the range of mountains known
as the Black Hills, to the head-waters of Heart River; thence down
Heart River to its mouth; and thence down the Missouri River to
the place of beginning.
The territory of
the Gros Ventre, Mandans, and Arrickaras Nations, commencing at
the mouth of Heart River; thence up the Missouri River to the mouth
of the Yellowstone River; thence up the Yellowstone River to the
mouth of Powder River in a southeasterly direction, to the head-waters
of the Little Missouri River; thence along the Black Hills to the
head of Heart River, and thence down Heart River to the place of
of the Assinaboin Nation, commencing at the mouth of Yellowstone
River; thence up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Muscle-shell
River; thence from the mouth of the Muscle-shell River in a southeasterly
direction until it strikes the head-waters of Big Dry Creek; thence
down that creek to where it empties into the Yellowstone River,
nearly opposite the mouth of Powder River, and thence down the Yellowstone
River to the place of beginning.
of the Blackfoot Nation, commencing at the mouth of Muscle-shell
River; thence up the Missouri River to its source; thence along
the main range of the Rocky Mountains, in a southerly direction,
to the head-waters of the northern source of the Yellowstone River;
thence down the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard
Creek; thence across to the head-waters of the Muscle-shell River,
and thence down the Muscle-shell River to the place of beginning.
The territory of
the Crow Nation, commencing at the mouth of Powder River on the
Yellowstone; thence up Powder River to its source; thence along
the main range of the Black Hills and Wind River Mountains to the
head-waters of the Yellowstone River; thence down the Yellowstone
River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek; thence to the head
waters of the Muscle-shell River; thence down the Muscle-shell River
to its mouth; thence to the head-waters of Big Dry Creek, and thence
to its mouth.
territory of the Cheyennes and Arrapahoes, commencing at the Red
Bute, or the place where the road leaves the north fork of the Platte
River; thence up the north fork of the Platte River to its source;
thence along the main range of the Rocky Mountains to the head-waters
of the Arkansas River; thence down the Arkansas River to the crossing
of the Santa Fé road; thence in a northwesterly direction
to the forks of the Platte River, and thence up the Platte River
to the place of beginning.
It is, however, understood that, in making this recognition and
acknowledgement, the aforesaid Indian nations do not hereby abandon
or prejudice any rights or claims they may have to other lands;
and further, that they do not surrender the privilege of hunting,
fishing, or passing over any of the tracts of country heretofore
The parties to the second part of this treaty having selected principals
or head-chiefs for their respective nations, through whom all national
business will hereafter be conducted, do hereby bind themselves
to sustain said chiefs and their successors during good behavior.
In consideration of the treaty stipulations, and for the damages
which have or may occur by reason thereof to the Indian nations,
parties hereto, and for their maintenance and the improvement of
their moral and social customs, the United States bind themselves
to deliver to the said Indian nations the sum of fifty thousand
dollars per annum for the term of ten years, with the right to continue
the same at the discretion of the President of the United States
for a period not exceeding five years thereafter, in provisions,
merchandise, domestic animals, and agricultural implements, in such
proportions as may be deemed best adapted to their condition by
the President of the United States, to be distributed in proportion
to the population of the aforesaid Indian nations.
It is understood and agreed that should any of the Indian nations,
parties to this treaty, violate any of the provisions thereof, the
United States may withhold the whole or aportion of the annuities
mentioned in the preceding article from the nation so offending,
until, in the opinion of the President of the United States, proper
satisfaction shall have been made.
In testimony whereof the said D. D. Mitchell and Thomas Fitzpatrick
commissioners as aforesaid, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves,
parties hereto, have set their hands and affixed their marks, on
the day and at the place first above written.
D. D. Mitchell
- Mah-toe-wha-you-whey, his x mark.
- Mah-kah-toe-zah-zah, his x mark.
- Bel-o-ton-kah-tan-ga, his x mark.
- Nah-ka-pah-gi-gi, his x mark.
- Mak-toe-sah-bi-chis, his x mark.
- Meh-wha-tah-ni-hans-kah, his x mark.
- Wah-ha-nis-satta, his x mark.
- Voist-ti-toe-vetz, his x mark.
- Nahk-ko-me-ien, his x mark.
- Koh-kah-y-wh-cum-est, his x mark.
- Bè-ah-té-a-qui-sah, his x mark.
- Neb-ni-bah-seh-it, his x mark.
- Beh-kah-jay-beth-sah-es, his x mark.
- Arra-tu-ri-sash, his x mark.
- Doh-chepit-seh-chi-es, his x mark.
- Mah-toe-wit-ko, his x mark.
- Toe-tah-ki-eh-nan, his x mark.
- Mandans and Gros Ventres:
- Nochk-pit-shi-toe-pish, his x mark.
- She-oh-mant-ho, his x mark.
- Koun-hei-ti-shan, his x mark.
- Bi-atch-tah-wetch, his x mark.
In the presence of -
- A. B. Chambers, secretary.
- S. Cooper, colonel, U. S. Army.
- R. H. Chilton, captain, First Drags.
- Thomas Duncan, captain, Mounted Riflemen.
- Thos. G. Rhett, brevet captain R. M. R.
- W. L. Elliott, first lieutenant R. M. R.
- C. Campbell, interpreter for Sioux.
- John S. Smith, interpreter for Cheyennes.
- Robert Meldrum, interpreter for the Crows.
- H. Culbertson, interpreter for Assiniboines and Gros Ventres.
- Francois L'Etalie, interpreter for Arick arees.
- John Pizelle, interpreter for the Arrapahoes.
- B. Gratz Brown.
- Robert Campbell.
- Edmond F. Chouteau.
*This treaty as signed was ratified by the Senate with an amendment
changing the annuity in Article 7 from fifty to ten years, subject
to acceptance by the tribes. Assent of all tribes except the Crows
was procured (see Upper Platte C., 570, 1853, Indian Office) and
in subsequent agreements this treaty has been recognized as in force.
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