The Robinson Treaty with The Ojibewa Indians of Lake Huron conveying certain lands to The Crown
9th September 1850
THIS AGREEMENT, made and entered into this ninth day of September,
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty, at
Sault Ste. Marie, in the Province of Canada, between the Honorable
William Benjamin Robinson, of the one part, on behalf of Her Majesty
The Queen, and Shinguacouse Nebenaigoching, Keokouse, Mishequonga,
Tagawinini, Shabokishick, Dokis, Ponekeosh, Wimdawtegowinini, Shawenakeshick,
Namassin, Naoquagabo, Wabakekik, Kitchepossigun by Papasainse, Wagemaki,
Pamequonaisheung, Chiefs; and John Bell, Paqwatchinini, Mashekyash,
Idowekesis, Waquacomick, Ocheek, Metigomin, Watachewana, Minwawapenasse,
Shenaoquom, Oningegun, Panaissy, Papasainse, Ashewasega, Kageshewawetung,
Shawonebin; and also Chief Maisquaso (also Chiefs Muckata, Mishoquet,
and Mekis), and Mishoquetto and Asa Waswanay and Pawiss, principal
men of the Ojibewa Indians, inhabiting and claiming the Eastern
and Northern Shores of Lake Huron, from Penetanguishine to Sault
Ste. Maire, and thence to Batchewanaung Bay, on the Northern Shore
of Lake Superior; together with the Islands in the said Lakes, opposite
to the Shores thereof, and inland to the Height of land which separates
the Territory covered by the charter of the Honorable Hudson Bay
Company from Canada; as well as all unconceded lands within the
limits of Canada West to which they have any just claim, of the
other part, witnesseth:
That for, and in consideration of the sum of two thousand pounds
of good and lawful money of Upper Canda, to them in hand paid, and
for the further perpetual annuity of six hundred pounds of like
money, the same to be paid and delivered to the said Chiefs and
their Tribes at a convenient season of each year, of which due notice
will be given, at such places as may be appointed for that purpose,
they the said Chiefs and Principal men, on behalf of their respective
Tribes or Bands, do hereby fully, freely, and voluntarily surrender,
cede, grant, and convey unto Her Majesty, her heirs and successors
for ever, all their right, title, and interest to, and in the whole
of, the territory above described, save and except the reservations
set forth in the schedule hereunto annexed; which reservations shall
be held and occupied by the said Chiefs and their Tribes in common,
for their own use and benefit.
And should the said Chiefs and their respective Tribes at any time
desire to dispose of any part of such reservations, or of any mineral
or other valuable productions thereon, the same will be sold or
leased at their request by the Superintendent-General of Indian
Affairs for the time being, or other officer having authority so
to do, for their sole benefit, and to the best advantage.
And the said William Benjamin Robinson of the first part, on behalf
of Her Majesty and the Government of this Province, hereby promises
and agrees to make, or cause to be made, the payments as before
mentioned; and further to allow the said Chiefs and their Tribes
the full and free privilege to hunt over the Territory now ceded
by them, and to fish in the waters thereof, as they have heretofore
been in the habit of doing; saving and excepting such portions of
the said Territory as may from time to time be sold or leased to
individuals or companies of individuals, and occupied by them with
the consent of the Provincial Government.
The parties of the second part further promise and agree that they
will not sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of any portion of their
Reservations without the consent of the Superintendent-General of
Indian Affairs, or other officer of like authority, being first
had and obtained. Nor will they at any time hinder or prevent persons
from exploring or searching for minerals, or other valuable productions,
in any part of the Territory hereby ceded to Her Majesty, as before
mentioned. The parties of the second part also agree, that in case
the Government of this Province should before the date of this agreement
have sold, or bargained to sell, any mining locations, or other
property, on the portions of the Territory hereby reserved for their
use; then and in that case such sale, or promise of sale, shall
be perfected by the Government, if the parties claiming it shall
have fulfilled all the conditions upon which such locations were
made, and the amount accruing therefrom shall be paid to the Tribe
to whom the Reservation belongs.
The said William Benjamin Robinson, on behalf of Her Majesty, who
desires to deal liberally and justly with all her subjects, further
promises and agrees, that should the Territory hereby ceded by the
parties of the second part at any future period produce such an
amount as will enable the Government of this Province, without incurring
loss, to increase the annuity hereby secured to them, then and in
that case the same shall be augmented from time to time, provided
that the amount paid to each individual shall not exceed the sum
of one pound Provincial Currency in any one year, or such further
sum as Her Majesty may be graciously pleased to order; and provided
further that the number of Indians entitled to the benefit of this
treaty shall amount to two-thirds of their present number, which
is fourteen hundred and twenty-two, to entitle them to claim the
full benefit thereof. And should they not at any future period amount
to two-thirds of fourteen hundred and twenty-two, then the said
annuity shall be diminished in proportion to their actual numbers.
The said William Benjamin Robinson of the first part further agrees,
on the part of Her Majesty and the Government of this Province,
that in consequence of the Indians inhabiting French River and Lake
Nipissing having become parties to this treaty, the further sum
of one hundred and sixty pounds Provincial Currency shall be paid
in addition to the two thousand pounds above mentioned.
Schedule of Reservations made by the above-named subscribing Chiefs
and Principal Men.
--Pamequonaishcung and his Band, a tract of land to commence seven miles, from the mouth of the River Maganetawang, and extending six miles east and west by three miles north.
--Wagemake and his Band, a tract of land to commence at a place called Nekickshegeshing, six miles from east to west, by three miles in depth.
--Kitcheposkissegan (by Papasainse), from Point Grondine westward, six miles inland, by two miles in front, so as to include the small Lake Nessinassung a tract for themselves and their Bands.
--Wabakekik, three miles front, near Shebawenaning, by five miles inland, for himself and Band.
--Namassin and Naoquagabo and their Bands, a tract of land commencing near Qacloche, at the Hudson Bay Company's boundary; thence westerly to the mouth of Spanish River; then four miles up the south bank of said river, and across to the place of beginning.
--Shawenakishick and his Band, a tract of land now occupied by them, and contained between two rivers, called Whitefish River, and Wanabitaseke, seven miles inland.
--Windawtegawinini and his Band, the Peninsula east of Serpent River, and formed by it, now occupied by them.
--Ponekeosh and his Band, the land contained between the River Mississaga and the River Penebewabecong, up to the first rapids.
--Dokis and his Band, three miles square at Wanabeyakokaun, near Lake Nipissing and the island near the Fall of Okickandawt.
--Shabokishick and his Band, from their present planting grounds on Lake Nipissing to the Hudson Bay Company's post, six miles in depth.
--Tagawinini and his Band, two miles square at Wanabitibing, a place about forty miles inland, near Lake Nipissing.
--Keokouse and his Band, four miles front from Thessalon River eastward, by four miles inland.
--Mishequanga and his Band, two miles on the lake shore east and west of Ogawaminang, by one mile inland.
--For Shinguacouse and his Band, a tract of land extending from Maskinongé Bay, inclusive, to Partridge Point, above Garden River on the front, and inland ten miles, throughout the whole distance; and also Squirrel Island.
--For Nebenaigoching and his Band, a tract of land extending from Wanabekineyunnung west of Gros Cap to the boundary of the lands ceded by the Chiefs of Lake Superior, and inland ten miles throughout the whole distance, including Batchewanaung Bay; and also the small island at Sault Ste. Marie used by them as a fishing station.
--For Chief Mekis and his Band, residing at Wasaquesing (Sandy Island), a tract of land at a place on the main shore opposite the Island; being the place now occupied by them for residence and cultivation, four miles square.
--For Chief Muckatamishaquet and his Band, a tract of land on the east side of the River Naishconteong, near Pointe aux Barils, three miles square; and also a small tract in Washauwenega Bay -- now occupied by a part of the Band -- three miles square.
Signed, sealed, and delivered at Sault Ste. Marie, the day and year first above written, in presence of--
- Astley P. Cooper, Capt. Rifle Brig.
- George Ironside, S. I. Affairs
- F. W. Balfour, Lieut. Rifle Brig.
- Allan McDonell.
- Geo. Johnston, Interpreter.
- Louis Cadott.
- J. B. Assikinack.
- T. W. Keating.
- Joe Wilson.
- W. B. Robinson, his + mark [L.S.]
- Shinguacouse, his + mark [L.S.]
- Nebenaigoching, his + mark [L.S.]
- Keokouse, his + mark [L.S.]
- Mishequonga, his + mark [L.S.]
- Tagawinini, his + mark [L.S.]
- Shabokeshick, his + mark [L.S.]
- Dokis, his + mark [L.S.]
- Ponekeosh, his + mark [L.S.]
- Windawegowinini, his + mark [L.S.]
- Shawenakeshick, his + mark [L.S.]
- Namassin, his + mark [L.S.]
- Muckata Mishaquet, his + mark [L.S.]
- Mekis, his + mark [L.S.]
- Maisquaso, his + mark [L.S.]
- Naoquagaho, his + mark [L.S.]
- Warokekick, his + mark [L.S.]
- Kitchepossegun (by Papasainse) his + mark [L.S.]
- Wagemake, his + mark [L.S.]
- Pamequonaisheung, his + mark [L.S.]
- John Bell, his + mark [L.S.]
- Paqwatchinini, his + mark [L.S.]
- Mashekyash, his + mark [L.S.]
- Idowekesis, his + mark [L.S.]
- Waquacomick, his + mark [L.S.]
- Mishoquetto, his + mark [L.S.]
- Asa Waswanay, his + mark [L.S.]
- Pawiss, his + mark [L.S.]
- Ocheek, his + mark [L.S.]
- Metigomin, his + mark [L.S.]
- Watachewana, his + mark [L.S.]
- Mimewawapenasse, his + mark [L.S.]
- Shenaoquom, his + mark [L.S.]
- Oningegun, his + mark [L.S.]
- Panaissy, his + mark [L.S.]
- Papasainse, his + mark [L.S.]
- Ashewasega, his + mark [L.S.]
- Kagishewawetung, (by Baboncung) his + mark [L.S.]
- Shawonebin, his + mark [L.S.]
Witness to signatures of Muckata, Mishaquet, Mekis, Mishoquetto, Asa Waswanay, and Pawiss -
- T. G. Anderson, S.I.A.
- W. B. Hamilton,
- W. Simpson,
- Alfred A. Thompson.
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