Fort Laramie Treaty
April 29th, 1868
ARTICLES OF A TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED BY AND
Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, General William S. Harney,
General Alfred H. Terry, General O. O. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel
G. Taylor, John G. Sanborn, and Samuel F. Tappan, duly appointed
commissioners on the part of the United States, and the different
bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, by their chiefs and headmen,
whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to
act in the premises.
From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement
shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires
peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire
peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.
If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the
authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the
person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon
proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender
to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United
States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.
If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation
upon the person or property of nay one, white, black, or Indian,
subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith,
the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof
made to their agent, and notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer
to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its
laws, and, in case they willfully refuse so to do, the person injured
shall be reimbursed for his loss from the annuities, or other moneys
due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with
the United States; and the President, on advising with the Commissioner
of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for
ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in
his judgment may be proper, but no one sustaining loss while violating
the provisions of this treaty, or the laws of the United States,
shall be reimbursed therefor.
The United States agrees that the following district of country,
to wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri river where
the 46th parallel of north latitude crosses the same, thence along
low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the
northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence
west across said river, and along the northern line of Nebraska
to the 104th degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north
on said meridian to a point where the 46th parallel of north latitude
intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the
place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing reservations
of the east back of said river, shall be and the same is, set apart
for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians
herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians
as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the
United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now
solemnly agrees that no persons, except those herein designated
and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employees
of the government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations
in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted
to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory described
in this article, or in such territory as may be added to this reservation
for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby
relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United
States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits
aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided.
If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory examination
of said tract of land that it contains less than 160 acres of tillable
land for each person who, at the time, may be authorized to reside
on it under the provisions of this treaty, and a very considerable
number of such persons hsall be disposed to comence cultivating
the soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for
the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity
of arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as near to the
same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the necessary
The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct,
at some place on the Missouri river, near the centre of said reservation
where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings,
to wit, a warehouse, a store-room for the use of the agent in storing
goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not less than $2,500; an
agency building, for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding
$3,000; a residence for the physician, to cost not more than $3,000;
and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller,
and engineer-each to cost not exceeding $2,000; also, a school-house,
or mission building, so soon as a sufficient number of children
can be induced by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost
The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said
reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, a good
steam circular saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle machine attached
to the same, to cost not exceeding $8,000.
The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall
in the future make his home at the agency building; that he shall
reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the
purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint
by and against the Indians as may be presented for investigation
under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as also for the
faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all
cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence
to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his findings,
to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subject to
the revision of the Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding
on the parties to this treaty.
If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally
incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire
to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the
presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a
tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred
and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified,
and recorded in the "Land Book" as herein directed, shall
cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held
in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his
family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.
Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a
family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him
or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land, not exceeding
eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive
possession of the same as above directed.
For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a
description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with
a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded,
shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after
the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in
his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known
as the "Sioux Land Book."
The President may, at any
time, order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed,
Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers
in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held
by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of
alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their
descendants as may be thought proper. And it is further stipulated
that any male Indians over eighteen years of age, of any band or
tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this treaty,
who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or occupant
of any reservation or territory not included in the tract of country
designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home of
the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the United
States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and who
shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred
dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead
for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive from the
United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land including
his said improvements, the same to be in the form of the legal subdivisions
of the surveys of the public lands. Upon application in writing,
sustained by the proof of two disinterested witnesses, made to the
register of the local land office when the land sought to be entered
is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered
is not in any land district, then upon said application and proof
being made to the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and the
right of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or tracts of
land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his first improvements
thereon, and shall continue as long as be continues his residence
and improvements and no longer. And any Indian or Indians receiving
a patent for land under the foregoing provisions shall thereby and
from thenceforth become and be a citizen of the United States and
be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of such citizens,
and shall, at the same time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing
to Indians under this treaty.
In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into
this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially
of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations,
and they, therefore, pledge themselves to compel their children,
male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend
school, and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians
to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the
United States agrees that for every thirty children between said
ages, who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house
shall be provided, and a teacher competent to teach the elementary
branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside
among said Indians and faithfully discharge his or her duties as
a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for not less
than twenty years.
When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and
received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall
be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating
the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and
agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value
one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue
to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled
to receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value
twenty-five dollars. And it is further stipulated that such persons
as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein
provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter
upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided,
with such iron, steel, and other material as may be needed.
At any time after ten years fro the making of this treaty, the
United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician,
farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided
for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter
of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education
of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon
careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulations
for the expenditure of said sums as will best promote the education
and moral improvement of said tribes.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be
paid to the Indians herein named under any treaty or treaties heretofore
made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on
the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August
of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:
For each male person over 14 years of age, a suit of good substantial
woollen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt,
hat, and a pair of home-made socks.
For each female over 12 years of age, a flannel shirt, or the goods
necessary to make it, a pair of woollen hose, 12 yards of calico,
and 12 yards of cotton domestics.
For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton
goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together
with a pair of woollen hose for each.
And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able
to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be
the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact
census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can
And in addition to the clothing herein
named, the sum of $10 for each person entitled to the beneficial
effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period
of 30 years, while such persons roam and hunt, and $20 for each
person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the
Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the
condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper.
And if within the 30 years, at any time, it shall appear that the
amount of money needed for clothing, under this article, can be
appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress
may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes, but in
no event shall the amount of the appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued
for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an
officer of the army to be present and attest the delivery of all
the goods herein named, to the Indians, and he shall inspect and
report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of
their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each
Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and
settled permanently upon said reservation, one pound of meat and
one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish
their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated
that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of
Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with the, who
shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming,
one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American
oxen within 60 days after such lodge or family shall have so settled
upon said reservation.
In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this
treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States,
the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that
they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory
outside their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the
right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican
Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon
in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians,
further expressly agree:
That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of
the railroads now being built on the plains.
That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad
not passing over their reservation as herein defined.
That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling,
nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle
belonging to the people of the United S tates, or to persons friendly
They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white
women or children.
They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them
They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of
the railroad now being built along the Platte river and westward
to the Pacific ocean, and they will not in future object to the
construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other
works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted
by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other
works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government
will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by
three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President
for that purpose, one of the said commissioners to be a chief or
headman of the tribe.
They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or
roads now established south of the North Platte river, or that may
be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or
hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.
No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation
herein described which may be held in common, shall be of any validity
or force as against the said Indians unless executed and signed
by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians occupying
or interested in the same, and no cession by the tribe shall be
understood or construed in such manner as to deprive, without his
consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any
tract of land selected by him as provided in Article VI of this
The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians
the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and
blacksmiths, as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations
shall be made from time to time, on the estimate of the Secretary
of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.
It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually for
three years from date shall be expended in presents to the ten persons
of said tribe who in the judgment of the agent may grow the most
valuable crops for the respective year.
The Indians herein named agree that when the agency house and other
buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will
regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make
no permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right,
subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt,
as stipulated in Article XI hereof.
The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country
north of the North Platte river and east of the summits of the Big
Horn mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded. Indian
territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or
persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion
of the same; or without the consent of the Indians, first had and
obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by
the United States, that within ninety days after the conclusion
of peace with all the bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts
now established in the territory in this article named shall be
abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the
settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.
It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the
respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty
and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the
effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties
and agreements heretofore entered into between the respective parties
hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements obligate the United
States to furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles
of property to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties
to this treaty, but no further.
In testimony of all which, we, the said commissioners, and we,
the chiefs and headmen of the Brule band of the Sioux nation, have
hereunto set our hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory,
this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred
- N. G. Taylor,
- W. T. Sherman,
- Lieutenant General
- WM. S. Harney,
- Brevet Major General U.S.A.
- John B. Sanborn,
- S. F. Tappan,
- C. C. Augur,
- Brevet Major General
- Alfred H. Terry,
- Brevet Major General U.S.A.
A. S. H. White, Secretary.
Executed on the part of the Brule band of Sioux by the chiefs and
headman whose names are hereto annexed, they being thereunto duly
authorized, at Fort Laramie, D. T., the twenty-ninth day of April,
in the year A. D. 1868
- MA-ZA-PON-KASKA, his X mark, Iron Shell.
- WAH-PAT-SHAH, his X mark, Red Leaf.
- HAH-SAH-PAH, his X mark, Black Horn.
- ZIN-TAH-GAH-LAT-WAH, his X mark, Spotted Tail.
- ZIN-TAH-GKAH, his X mark, White Tail.
- ME-WAH-TAH-NE-HO-SKAH, his X mark, Tall Man.
- SHE-CHA-CHAT-KAH, his X mark, Bad Left Hand.
- NO-MAH-NO-PAH, his X mark, Two and Two.
- TAH-TONKA-SKAH, his X mark, White Bull.
- CON-RA-WASHTA, his X mark, Pretty Coon.
- HA-CAH-CAH-SHE-CHAH, his X mark, Bad Elk.
- WA-HA-KA-ZAH-ISH-TAH, his X mark, Eye Lance.
- MA-TO-HA-KE-TAH, his X mark, Bear that looks behind.
- BELLA-TONKA-TONKA, his X mark, Big Partisan.
- MAH-TO-HO-HONKA, his X mark, Swift Bear.
- TO-WIS-NE, his X mark, Cold Place.
- ISH-TAH-SKAH, his X mark, White Eye.
- MA-TA-LOO-ZAH, his X mark, Fast Bear.
- AS-HAH-HAH-NAH-SHE, his X mark, Standing Elk.
- CAN-TE-TE-KI-YA, his X mark, The Brave Heart.
- SHUNKA-SHATON, his X mark, Day Hawk.
- TATANKA-WAKON, his X mark, Sacred Bull.
- MAPIA SHATON, his X mark, Hawk Cloud.
- MA-SHA-A-OW, his X mark, Stands and Comes.
- SHON-KA-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Dog.
- ASHTON S. H. WHITE, Secretary of Commission.
- GEORGE B. WITHS, Phonographer to Commission.
- GEO. H. HOLTZMAN.
- JOHN D. HOWLAND.
- JAMES C. O'CONNOR.
- CHAR. E. GUERN, Interpreter.
- LEON T. PALLARDY, Interpreter.
- NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
Executed on the part of the Ogallalla band of Sioux by the chiefs
and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto
duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, the 25th day of May, in the year
A. D. 1868.
- TAH-SHUN-KA-CO-QUI-PAH, his mark,
- SHA-TON-SKAH, his X mark, White Hawk.
- SHA-TON-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Hawk.
- EGA-MON-TON-KA-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Tiger
- OH-WAH-SHE-CHA, his X mark, Bad Wound.
- PAH-GEE, his X mark, Grass.
- WAH-NON SAH-CHE-GEH, his X mark, Ghost Heart.
- COMECH, his X mark, Crow.
- OH-HE-TE-KAH, his X mark, The Brave.
- TAH-TON-KAH-HE-YO-TA-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bull.
- SHON-KA-OH-WAH-MEN-YE, his X mark, Whirlwind Dog.
- HA-KAH-KAH-TAH-MIECH, his X mark, Poor Elk.
- WAM-BU-LEE-WAH-KON, his X mark, Medicine Eagle.
- CHON-GAH-MA-HE-TO-HANS-KA, his X mark, High Wolf.
- WAH-SECHUN-TA-SHUN-KAH, his X mark, American Horse.
- MAH-KAH-MAH-HA-MAK-NEAR, his X mark, Man that walks under the
- MAH-TO-TOW-PAH, his X mark, Four Bears.
- MA-TO-WEE-SHA-KTA, his X mark, One that kills the bear.
- OH-TAH-KEE-TOKA-WEE-CHAKTA, his X mark, One that kills in a
- TAH-TON-KAH-TA-MIECH, his X mark, The Poor Bull.
- OH-HUNS-EE-GA-NON-SKEN, his X mark, Mad Shade.
- SHAH-TON-OH-NAH-OM-MINNE-NE-OH-MINNE, his X mark, Whirling hawk.
- MAH-TO-CHUN-KA-OH, his X mark, Bear's Back.
- CHE-TON-WEE-KOH, his X mark, Fool Hawk.
- WAH-HOH-KE-ZA-AH-HAH, his X mark,
- EH-TON-KAH, his X mark, Big Mouth.
- MA-PAH-CHE-TAH, his X mark, Bad Hand.
- WAH-KE-YUN-SHAH, his X mark, Red Thunder.
- WAK-SAH, his X mark, One that Cuts Off.
- CHAH-NOM-QUI-YAH, his X mark, One that Presents the Pipe.
- WAH-KE-KE-YAN-PUH-TAH, his X mark, Fire Thunder.
- MAH-TO-NONK-PAH-ZE, his X mark, Bear with Yellow Ears.
- CON-REE-TEH-KA, his X mark, The Little Crow.
- HE-HUP-PAH-TOH, his X mark, The Blue War Club.
- SHON-KEE-TOH, his X mark, The Blue Horse.
- WAM-BALLA-OH-CONQUO, his X mark, Quick Eagle.
- TA-TONKA-SUPPA, his X mark, Black Bull.
- MOH-TOH-HA-SHE-NA, his X mark, The Bear Hide.
- S. E. WARD.
- JAS. C. O'CONNOR.
- J. M. SHERWOOD.
- W. C. SLICER.
- SAM DEON.
- H. M. MATHEWS.
- JOSEPH BISS
- NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
- LEFROY JOTT, Interpreter.
- ANTOINE JANIS, Interpreter.
Executed on the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the chiefs
and headmen whose names are hereunto subscribed, they being thereunto
- HEH-WON-GE-CHAT, his X mark, One Horn.
- OH-PON-AH-TAH-E-MANNE, his X mark, The Elk that Bellows Walking.
- HEH-HO-LAH-ZEH-CHA-SKAH, his X mark, Young White Bull.
- WAH-CHAH-CHUM-KAH-COH-KEEPAH, his X mark, One that is Afraid
- HE-HON-NE-SHAKTA, his X mark, The Old Owl.
- MOC-PE-A-TOH, his X mark, Blue Cloud.
- OH-PONG-GE-LE-SKAH, his X mark, Spotted Elk.
- TAH-TONK-KA-HON-KE-SCHUE, his X mark, Slow bull.
- SHONK-A-NEE-SHAH-SHAH-ATAH-PE, his X mark, The Dog Chief.
- MA-TO-TAH-TA-TONK-KA, his X mark, Bull Bear.
- WOM-BEH-LE-TON-KAH, his X mark, The Big Eagle.
- MATOH, EH-SCHNE-LAH, his X mark, The Lone Bear.
- MA-TOH-OH-HE-TO-KEH, his X mark, The Brave Bear.
- EH-CHE-MA-KEH, his X mark, The Runner.
- TI-KI-YA, his X mark, The Hard.
- HE-MA-ZA, his X mark, Iron Horn.
- JAS. C O'CONNOR,
- WM. D. BROWN,
- NICHOLAS JANIS,
- ANTOINE JANIS, Interpreters.
Executed on the part of the Yanctonais band of Sioux by the chiefs
and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto
- MAH-TO-NON-PAH, his X mark, Two Bears.
- MA-TO-HNA-SKIN-YA, his X mark, Mad Bear.
- HE-O-PU-ZA, his X mark, Louzy.
- AH-KE-CHE-TAH-CHE-KA-DAN, his X mark, Little Soldier.
- MAH-TO-E-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, Chief Bear.
- CU-WI-TO-WIA, his X mark, Rotten Stomach.
- SKUN-KA-WE-TKO, his X mark, Fool Dog.
- ISH-TA-SAP-PAH, his X mark, Black Eye.
- IH-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, The Chief.
- I-A-WI-CA-KA, his X mark, The One who Tells the Truth.
- AH-KE-CHE-TAH, his X mark, The Soldier.
- TA-SHI-NA-GI, his X mark, Yellow Robe.
- NAH-PE-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Hand.
- CHAN-TEE-WE-KTO, his X mark, Fool Heart.
- HOH-GAN-SAH-PA, his X mark, Black Catfish.
- MAH-TO-WAH-KAN, his X mark, Medicine Bear.
- SHUN-KA-KAN-SHA, his X mark, Red Horse.
- WAN-RODE, his X mark, The Eagle.
- CAN-HPI-SA-PA, his X mark, Black Tomahawk.
- WAR-HE-LE-RE, his X mark, Yellow Eagle.
- CHA-TON-CHE-CA, his X mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare.
- SHU-GER-MON-E-TOO-HA-SKA, his X mark, Fall Wolf.
- MA-TO-U-TAH-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bear.
- HI-HA-CAH-GE-NA-SKENE, his X mark, Mad Elk.
- LITTLE CHIEF, his X mark.
- TALL BEAR, his X mark.
- TOP MAN, his X mark.
- NEVA, his X mark.
- THE WOUNDED BEAR, his X mark.
- WHIRLWIND, his X mark.
- THE FOX, his X mark.
- THE DOG BIG MOUTH, his X mark.
- SPOTTED WOLF, his X mark.
- SORREL HORSE, his X mark.
- BLACK COAL, his X mark.
- BIG WOLF, his X mark.
- KNOCK-KNEE, his X mark.
- BLACK CROW, his X mark.
- THE LONE OLD MAN, his X mark.
- PAUL, his X mark.
- BLACK BULL, his X mark.
- BIG TRACK, his X mark.
- THE FOOT, his X mark.
- BLACK WHITE, his X mark.
- YELLOW HAIR, his X mark.
- LITTLE SHIELD, his X mark.
- BLACK BEAR, his X mark.
- WOLF MOCASSIN, his X mark.
- BIG ROBE, his X mark.
- WOLF CHIEF, his X mark.
- ROBERT P. MCKIBBIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. A.,
Commanding Fort Laramie.
- WM. H. POWELL,
Brevet Major, Captain 4th Infantry.
- HENRY W. PATTERSON,
Captain 4th Infantry.
- THEO E. TRUE,
- Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.
- W. G. BULLOCK.
FORT LARAMIE, WYOMING TERRITORY
November 6, 1868.
- MAH-PI-AH-LU-TAH, his X mark, Red Cloud.
- WA-KI-AH-WE-CHA-SHAH, his X mark, Thunder Man.
- MA-ZAH-ZAH-GEH, his X mark, Iron Cane.
- WA-UMBLE-WHY-WA-KA-TUYAH, his X mark, High Eagle.
- KO-KE-PAH, his X mark, Man Afraid.
- WA-KI-AH-WA-KOU-AH, his X mark, Thunder Flying Running.
- W. MCE. DYE, Brevet Colonel U. S. Army, Commanding.
- A. B. CAIN, Captain 4th Infantry, Brevet Major U. S. Army.
- ROBT. P. MCKIBBIN, Captain 4th Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col. U.
- JNO. MILLER, Captain 4th Infantry.
- G. L. LUHN, First Lieutenant 4th Infantry, Bvt. Capt. U. S.
- H. C. SLOAN, Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.
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