Native American Legends
How the Hopi Indians reached their World
A Hopi Legend
When the world was new, the ancient people and the ancient creatures
did not live on the top of the Earth. They lived under it. All was
darkness, all was blackness, above the Earth as well as below it.
There were four worlds: this one on top of the Earth, and below
it three cave worlds, one below the other. None of the cave worlds
was large enough for all the people and the creatures.
They increased so fast in the lowest cave world that they crowded
it. They were poor and did not know where to turn in the blackness.
When they moved, they jostled one another. The cave was filled with
the filth of the people who lived in it. No one could turn to spit
without spitting on another. No one could cast slime from his nose
without its falling on someone else. The people filled the place
with their complaints and with their expressions of disgust.
Some people said, "It is not good for us to live in this way."
"How can it be made better?" one man asked.
"Let it be tried and seen!" answered another.
Two Brothers, one older and one younger, spoke to the priest- chiefs
of the people in the cave world, "Yes, let it be tried and
seen. Then it shall be well. By our wills it shall be well."
The Two Brothers pierced the roofs of the caves and descended to
the lowest world, where people lived. The Two Brothers sowed one
plant after another, hoping that one of them would grow up to the
opening through which they themselves had descended and yet would
have the strength to bear the weight of men and creatures. These,
the Two Brothers hoped, might climb up the plant into the second
cave world. One of these plants was a cane.
At last, after many trials, the cane became so tall that it grew
through the opening in the roof, and it was so strong that men could
climb to its top. It was jointed so that it was like a ladder, easily
ascended. Ever since then, the cane has grown in joints as we see
it today along the Colorado River.
Up this cane many people and beings climbed to the second cave
world. When a part of them had climbed out, they feared that the
cave also would be too small. It was so dark that they could not
see how large it was. So they shook the ladder and caused those
who were coming up it to fall back. Then they pulled the ladder
out. It is said that those who were left came out of the lowest
cave later. They are our brothers west of us.
After a long time the second cave became filled with men and beings,
as the first had been. Complaining and wrangling were heard as in
the beginning. Again the cane was placed under the roof vent, and
once more men and beings entered the upper cave world. Again, those
who were slow to climb out were shaken back or left behind. Though
larger, the third cave was as dark as the first and second. The
Two Brothers found fire. Torches were set ablaze, and by their light
men built their huts and kivas, or traveled from place to place.
While people and the beings lived in this third cave world, times
of evil came to them. Women became so crazed that they neglected
all things for the dance. They even forgot their babies. Wives became
mixed with wives, so that husbands did not know their own from others.
At that time there was no day, only night, black night. Throughout
this night, women danced in the kivas (men's "clubhouses"),
ceasing only to sleep. So the fathers had to be the mothers of the
little ones. When these little ones cried from hunger, the fathers
carried them to the kivas, where the women were dancing. Hearing
their cries, the mothers came and nursed them, and then went back
to their dancing. Again the fathers took care of the children.
These troubles caused people to long for the light and to seek
again an escape from darkness. They climbed to the fourth world,
which was this world. But it too was in darkness, for the Earth
was closed in by the sky, just as the cave worlds had been closed
in by their roofs. Men went from their lodges and worked by the
light of torches and fires. They found the tracks of only one being,
the single ruler of the "unpeopled" world, the tracks
of Corpse Demon or Death. The people tried to follow these tracks,
which led eastward. But the world was damp and dark, and people
did not know what to do in the darkness. The waters seemed to surround
them, and the tracks seemed to lead out into the waters.
With the people were five beings that had come forth with them
from the cave worlds: Spider, Vulture, Swallow, Coyote, and Locust.
The people and these beings consulted together, trying to think
of some way of making light. Many, many attempts were made, but
without success. Spider was asked to try first. She spun a mantle
of pure white cotton. It gave some light but not enough. Spider
therefore became our grandmother.
Then the people obtained and prepared a very white deerskin that
had not been pierced in any spot. From this they made a shield case,
which they painted with turquoise paint. It shed forth such brilliant
light that it lighted the whole world. It made the light from the
cotton mantle look faded. So the people sent the shield-light to
the east, where it became the moon.
Down in the cave world Coyote had stolen a jar that was very heavy,
so very heavy that he grew weary of carrying it. He decided to leave
it behind, but he was curious to see what it contained. Now that
light had taken the place of darkness, he opened the jar. From it
many shining fragments and sparks flew out and upward, singeing
his face as they passed him. That is why the coyote has a black
face to this day. The shining fragments and sparks flew up to the
sky and became stars.
By these lights the people found that the world was indeed very
small and surrounded by waters, which made it damp. The people appealed
to Vulture for help. He spread his wings and fanned the waters,
which flowed away to the east and to the west until mountains began
Across the mountains the Two Brothers cut channels. Water rushed
through the channels, and wore their courses deeper and deeper.
Thus the great canyons and valleys of the world were formed. The
waters have kept on flowing and flowing for ages. The world has
grown drier, and continues to grow drier and drier.
Now that there was light, the people easily followed the tracks
of Death eastward over the new land that was appearing. Hence Death
is our greatest father and master. We followed his tracks when we
left the cave worlds, and he was the only being that awaited us
on the great world of waters where this world is now.
Although all the water had flowed away, the people found the Earth
soft and damp. That is why we can see today the tracks of men and
of many strange creatures between the place toward the west and
the place where we came from the cave world.
Since the days of the first people, the Earth has been changed
to stone, and all the tracks have been preserved as they were when
they were first made. When people had followed in the tracks of
Corpse Demon but a short distance, they overtook him. Among them
were two little girls. One was the beautiful daughter of a great
priest. The other was the child of somebody-or- other She was not
beautiful, and she was jealous of the little beauty. With the aid
of Corpse Demon the jealous girl caused the death of the other child.
This was the first death.
When people saw that the girl slept and could not be awakened,
that she grew cold and that her heart had stopped beating, her father,
the great priest, grew angry.
"Who has caused my daughter to die?" he cried loudly.
But the people only looked at each other.
"I will make a ball of sacred meal," said the priest.
"I will throw it into the air, and when it falls it will strike
someone on the head. The one it will strike I shall know as the
one whose magic and evil art have brought my tragedy upon me."
The priest made a ball of sacred flour and pollen and threw it
into the air. When it fell, it struck the head of the jealous little
girl, the daughter of somebody-or-other. Then the priest exclaimed,
"So you have caused this thing! You have caused the death of
He called a council of the people, and they tried the girl. They
would have killed her if she had not cried for mercy and a little
time. Then she begged the priest and his people to return to the
hole they had all come out of and look down it.
"If you still wish to destroy me, after you have looked into
the hole," she said, "I will die willingly."
So the people were persuaded to return to the hole leading from
the cave world. When they looked down, they saw plains of beautiful
flowers in a land of everlasting summer and fruitfulness. And they
saw the beautiful little girl, the priest's daughter, wandering
among the flowers. She was so happy that she paid no attention to
the people. She seemed to have no desire to return to this world.
"Look!" said the girl who had caused her death. "Thus
it shall be with all the children of men."
"When we die," the people said to each other, "we
will return to the world we have come from. There we shall be happy.
Why should we fear to die? Why should we resent death?"
So they did not kill the little girl. Her children became the powerful
wizards and witches of the world, who increased in numbers as people
increased. Her children still live and still have wonderful and
Then the people journeyed still farther eastward. As they went,
they discovered Locust in their midst.
"Where did you come from?" they asked.
"I came out with you and the other beings," he replied.
"Why did you come with us on our journey?" they asked.
"So that I might be useful," replied Locust.
But the people, thinking that he could not be useful, said to him,
"You must return to the place you came from."
But Locust would not obey them. Then the people became so angry
at him that they ran arrows through him, even through his heart.
All the blood oozed out of his body and he died. After a long time
he came to life again and ran about, looking as he had looked before,
except that he was black.
The people said to one another, "Locust lives again, although
we have pierced him through and through. Now he shall indeed be
useful and shall journey with us. Who besides Locust has this wonderful
power of renewing his life? He must possess the medicine for the
renewal of the lives of others. He shall become the medicine of
mortal wounds and of war."
So today the locust is at first white, as was the first locust
that came forth with the ancients. Like him, the locust dies, and
after he has been dead a long time, he comes to life again-- black.
He is our father, too. Having his medicine, we are the greatest
of men. The locust medicine still heals mortal wounds.
After the ancient people had journeyed a long distance, they became
very hungry. In their hurry to get away from the lower cave world,
they had forgotten to bring seed. After they had done much lamenting,
the Spirit of Dew sent the Swallow back to bring the seed of corn
and of other foods. When Swallow returned, the Spirit of Dew planted
the seed in the ground and chanted prayers to it. Through the power
of these prayers, the corn grew and ripened in a single day.
So for a long time, as the people continued their journey, they
carried only enough seed for a day's planting. They depended upon
the Spirit of Dew to raise for them in a single day an abundance
of corn and other foods. To the Corn Clan, he gave this seed, and
for a long time they were able to raise enough corn for their needs
in a very short time.
But the powers of the witches and wizards made the time for raising
foods grow longer and longer. Now, sometimes, our corn does not
have time to grow old and ripen in the ear, and our other foods
do not ripen. If it had not been for the children of the little
girl whom the ancient people let live, even now we would not need
to watch our cornfields whole summers through, and we would not
have to carry heavy packs of food on our journeys.
As the ancient people traveled on, the children of the little girl
tried their powers and caused other troubles. These mischief-makers
stirred up people who had come out of the cave worlds before our
ancients had come. They made war upon our ancients. The wars made
it necessary for the people to build houses whenever they stopped
traveling. They built their houses on high mountains reached by
only one trail, or in caves with but one path leading to them, or
in the sides of deep canyons. Only in such places could they sleep
Only a small number of people were able to climb up from their
secret hiding places and emerge into the Fourth World. Legends reveal
the Grand Canyon is where these people emerged. From there they
began their search for the homes the Two Brothers intended for them.
These few were the Hopi Indians that now live on the Three Mesas
of northeastern Arizona.
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