Geronimo His Own Story
Part I: The Apaches
Part II: The Mexicans
Part III: The White Men
Part IV: The Old And The New
Part IV: The Old And The New
Unwritten Laws of the Apaches
When an Indian has been wronged by a member of his tribe he may,
if he does not wish to settle the difficulty personally, make complaint
to the Chieftain. If he is unable to meet the offending parties
in a personal encounter, and disdains to make complaint, anyone
may in his stead inform the chief of this conduct, and then it becomes
necessary to have an investigation or trial. Both the accused and
the accuser are entitled to witnesses, and their witnesses are not
interrupted in any way by questions, but simply say what they wish
to say in regard to the matter. The witnesses are not placed under
oath, because it is not believed that they will give false testimony
in a matter relating to their own people.
The chief of the tribe presides during these trials, but if it
is a serious offense he asks two or three leaders to sit with him.
These simply determine whether or not the man is guilty. If he is
not guilty the matter is ended, and the complaining party has forfeited
his right to take personal vengeance, for if he wishes to take vengeance
himself, he must object to the trial which would prevent it. If
the accused is found guilty the injured party fixes the penalty,
which is generally confirmed by the chief and his associates.
Adoption of children
If any children are left orphans by the usage of war or otherwise,
that is, if both parents are dead, the chief of the tribe may adopt
them or give them away as he desires. In the case of outlawed Indians,
they may, if they wish, take their children with them, but if they
leave the children with the tribe, the chief decides what will be
done with them, but no disgrace attaches to the children.
We obtained our salt from a little lake in the Gila Mountains.
This is a very small lake of clear, shallow water, and in the center
a small mound arises above the surface of the water. The water is
too salty to drink, and the bottom of the lake is covered with a
brown crust. When this crust is broken cakes of salt adhere to it.
These cakes of salt may be washed clear in the water of this lake,
but if washed in other water will dissolve.
When visiting this lake our people were not allowed to even kill
game or attack an enemy. All creatures were free to go and come
Preparation of a Warrior
To be admitted as a warrior a youth must have gone with the warriors
of his tribe four separate times on the war path.
On the first trip he will be given only very inferior food. With
this he must be contented without murmuring. On none of the four
trips is he allowed to select his food as the warriors do, but must
eat such food as he is permitted to have.
On each of these expeditions he acts as servant, cares for the
horses, cooks the food, and does whatever duties he should do without
being told. He knows what things are to be done, and without waiting
to be told is to do them. He is not allowed to speak to any warrior
except in answer to questions or when told to speak.
During these four wars he is expected to learn the sacred names
of everything used in war, for after the tribe enters upon the war
path no common names are used in referring to anything appertaining
to war in any way. War is a solemn religious matter.
If, after four expeditions, all the warriors are satisfied that
the youth has been industrious, has not spoken out of order, has
been discreet in all things, has shown courage in battle, has borne
all hardships uncomplainingly, and has exhibited no color of cowardice,
or weakness of any kind, he may by vote of the council be admitted
as a warrior; but if any warrior objects to him upon any account
he will be subjected to further tests, and if he meets these courageously,
his name may again be proposed. When he has proven beyond question
that he can bear hardships without complaint, and that he is a stranger
to fear, he is admitted to the council of the warriors in the lowest
rank. After this there is no formal test for promotions, but by
common consent he assumes a station on the battlefield, and if that
position is maintained with honor, he is allowed to keep it, and
may be asked, or may volunteer, to take a higher station, but no
warrior would presume to take a higher station unless he had assurance
from the leaders of the tribe that his conduct in the first position
was worthy of commendation.
From this point upward the only election by the council in formal
assembly is the election of the chief.
Old men are not allowed to lead in battle, but their advice is
always respected. Old age means loss of physical power and is fatal
to active leadership.
All dances are considered religious ceremonies and are presided
over by a chief and medicine men. They are of a social or military
nature, but never without some sacred characteristic.
A dance of thanksgiving
Every summer we would gather the fruit of the yucca, grind and
pulverize it and mold it into cakes; then the tribe would be assembled
to feast, to sing, and to give praises to Usen. Prayers of Thanksgiving
were said by all. When the dance began the leaders bore these cakes
and added words of praise occasionally to the usual tone sounds
of the music.
The war dance
After a council of the warriors had deliberated, and had prepared
for the war path, the dance would be started. In this dance there
is the usual singing led by the warriors and accompanied with the
beating of the "esadadene," but the dancing is more violent,
and yells and war whoops sometimes almost drown the music. Only
warriors participated in this dance.
After a war party has returned, a modification of the war dance
is held. The warriors who have brought scalps from the battles exhibit
them to the tribe, and when the dance begins these scalps, elevated
on poles or spears, are carried around the camp fires while the
dance is in progress. During this dance there is still some of the
solemnity of the war dance. There are yells and war-whoops, frequently
accompanied by discharge of firearms, but there is always more levity
than would be permitted at a war dance. After the scalp dance is
over the scalps are thrown away. No Apache would keep them, for
they are considered defiling.
A social dance
In the early part of September, 1905, I announced among the Apaches
that my daughter, Eva, having attained womanhood, should now put
away childish things and assume her station as a young lady. At
a dance of the tribe she would make her debut, and then, or thereafter,
it would be proper for a warrior to seek her hand in marriage. Accordingly,
invitations were issued to all Apaches, and many Comanches and Kiowas,
to assemble for a grand dance on the green by the south bank of
Medicine Creek, near the village of Naiche, former chief of the
Chokonen Apaches, on the first night of full moon in September.
The festivities were to continue for two days and nights. Nothing
was omitted in the preparation that would contribute to the enjoyment
of the guests or the perfection of the observance of the religious
To make ready for the dancing the grass on a large circular space
was closely mowed.
The singing was led by Chief Naiche, and I, assisted by our medicine
men, directed the dance.
First Eva advanced from among the women and danced once around
the camp fire; then, accompanied by another young woman, she again
advanced and both danced twice around the camp fire; then she and
two other young ladies advanced and danced three times around the
camp fire; the next time she and three other young ladies advanced
and danced four times around the camp fire; this ceremony lasted
about one hour. Next the medicine men entered, stripped to the waist,
their bodies painted fantastically, and danced the sacred dances.
They were followed by clown dancers who amused the audience greatly.
Then the members of the tribe joined hands and danced in a circle
around the camp fire for a long time. All the friends of the tribe
were asked to take part in this dance, and when it was ended many
of the old people retired, and the "lovers' dance" began.
The warriors stood in the middle of the circle and the ladies,
two-and-two, danced forward and designated some warrior to dance
with them. The dancing was back and forth on a line from the center
to the outer edge of the circle. The warrior faced the two ladies,
and when they danced forward to the center he danced backward: then
they danced backward to the outer edge and he followed facing them.
This lasted two or three hours and then the music changed. Immediately
the warriors assembled again in the center of the circle, and this
time each lady selected a warrior as a partner. The manner of dancing
was as before, only two instead of three danced together. During
this dance, which continued until daylight, the warrior (if dancing
with a maiden) could propose marriage, and if the maiden agreed,
he would consult her father soon afterward and make a bargain for
Upon all such occasions as this, when the dance is finished, each
warrior gives a present to the lady who selected him for a partner
and danced with him. If she is satisfied with the present he says
good-by, if not, the matter is referred to someone in authority
(medicine man or chief), who determines the question of what is
a proper gift.
For a married lady the value of the present should be two or three
dollars; for a maiden the present should have a value of not less
than five dollars. Often, however, the maiden receives a very valuable
During the "lovers' dance" the medicine men mingle with
the dancers to keep out evil spirits.
Perhaps I shall never again have cause to assemble our people to
dance, but these social dances in the moonlight have been a large
part of our enjoyment in the past, and I think they will not soon
be discontinued, at least I hope not.
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