Native American Legends
Entry of the Incas into the valley of Cuzco
An Inca Legend
The six brethren were sad at the loss of Ayar Uchu, and at the
loss of Ayar Cachi; and, owing to the death of Ayar Cachi, those
of the lineage of the Incas, from that time to this day, always
fear to go to Tampu-tocco, lest they should have to remain there
like Ayar Cachi.
They went down to the foot of the hill, whence they began their
entry into the valley of Cuzco, arriving at a place called Matahua,
where they stopped and built huts, intending to remain there some
time. Here they armed as knight the son of Manco Ccapac and of Mama
Occlo, named Sinchi Rocca, and they bored his ears, a ceremony which
is called huarachico, being the insignia of his knighthood and nobility,
like the custom known among ourselves.
On this occasion they indulged in great rejoicing, drinking for
many days, and at intervals mourning for the loss of their brother
Ayar Uchu. It was here that they invented the mourning sound for
the dead, like the cooing of a dove. Then they performed the dance
called Ccapac Raymi, a ceremony of the royal or great lords. It
is danced, in long purple robes, at the ceremonies they call quicochico,
which is when girls come to maturity, and the huarachico, when they
pierce the ears of the Incas, and the rutuchico, when the Inca's
hair is cut the first time, and the ayuscay, which is when a child
is born, and they drink continuously for four or five days.
After this they were in Matahua for two years, waiting to pass
on to the upper valley to seek good and fertile land. Mama Huaco,
who was very strong and dexterous, took two wands of gold and hurled
them towards the north. One fell, at two shots of an arquebus, into
a ploughed field called Colcapampa and did not drive in well, the
soil being loose and not terraced.
By this they knew that the soil was not fertile. The other went
further, to near Cuzco, and fixed well in the territory called Huanay-pata,
where they knew the land to be fertile. Others say that this proof
was made by Manco Ccapac with the staff of gold which he carried
himself, and that thus they knew of the fertility of the land, when
the staff sunk in the land called Huanay-pata, two shots of an arquebus
from Cuzco. They knew the crust of the soil to be rich and close,
so that it could only be broken by using much force.
Let it be by one way or the other, for all agree that they went
trying the land with a pole or staff until they arrived at this
Huanay-pata, when they were satisfied. They were sure of its fertility,
because after sowing perpetually, it always yielded abundantly,
giving more the more it was sown. They determined to usurp that
land by force, in spite of the natural owners, and to do with it
as they chose. So they returned to Matahua.
From that place Manco Ccapac saw a heap of stones near the site
of the present monastery of Santo Domingo at Cuzco. Pointing it
out to his brother Ayar Auca, he said, "Brother! you remember
how it was arranged between us, that you should go to take possession
of the land where we are to settle. Well! look at that stone."
Pointing out the stone he continued, "Go thither flying,"
for they say that Ayar Auca had developed some wings, "and
seating yourself there, take possession of land seen from that heap
of stones. We will presently come to settle and reside."
When Ayar Auca heard the words of his brother, he opened his wings
and flew to that place which Manco Ccapac had pointed out. Seating
himself there, he was presently turned into stone, and was made
the stone of possession. In the ancient language of this valley
the heap was called cozco, whence that site has had the name of
Cuzco to this day.
From this circumstance the Incas had a proverb which said, "Ayar
Auca cuzco huanca," or, "Ayar Auca a heap of marble."
Others say that Manco Ccapac gave the name of Cuzco because he wept
in that place where he buried his brother Ayar Cachi. Owing to his
sorrow and to the fertility, he gave that name which in the ancient
language of that time signified sad as well as fertile.
The first version must be the correct one because Ayar Cachi was
not buried at Cuzco, having died at Ccapac-tocco as has been narrated
before. And this is generally affirmed by Incas and natives.
Five brethren only remaining, namely Manco Ccapac, and the four
sisters, and Manco Ccapac being the only surviving brother out of
four, they presently resolved to advance to where Ayar Auca had
taken possession. Manco Ccapac first gave to his son Sinchi Rocca
a wife named Mama Cuca, of the lineage of Sañu, daughter
of a Sinchi named Sitic-huaman, by whom he afterwards had a son
named Sapaca. He also instituted the sacrifice called capa cocha,
which is the immolation of two male and two female infants before
the idol Huanacauri, at the time when the Incas were armed as knights.
These things being arranged, he ordered the companies to follow
him to the place where Ayar Auca was.
Arriving on the land of Huanay-pata, which is near where now stands
the Arco de la plata leading to the Charcas road, he found settled
there a nation of Indians named Huallas, already mentioned. Manco
Ccapac and Mama Occlo began to settle and to take possession of
the land and water, against the will of the Huallas. In this business
they did many violent and unjust things.
As the Huallas attempted to defend their lives and properties,
many cruelties were committed by Manco Ccapac and Mama Occlo. They
relate that Mama Occlo was so fierce that, having killed one of
the Hualla Indians, she cut him up, took out the inside, carried
the heart and lungs in her mouth, and with an ayuinto, which is
a stone fastened to a rope, in her hand, she attacked the Huallas
with diabolical resolution.
When the Huallas beheld this horrible and inhuman spectacle, they
feared that the same things would be done to them, being simple
and timid, and they fled and abandoned their rights. Mama Occlo
reflecting on her cruelty, and fearing that for it they would be
branded as tyrants, resolved not to spare any Huallas, believing
that the affair would thus be forgotten. So they killed all they
could lay their hands upon, dragging infants from their mothers'
wombs, that no memory might be left of these miserable Huallas.
Having done this Manco Ccapac advanced, and came within a mile
of Cuzco to the S. E., where a Sinchi named Copalimayta came out
to oppose him. We have mentioned this chief before and that, although
he was a late comer, he settled with the consent of the natives
of the valley, and had been incorporated in the nation of Sauaseray
Panaca, natives of the site of Santo Domingo at Cuzco.
Having seen the strangers invading their lands and tyrannizing
over them, and knowing the cruelties inflicted on the Huallas, they
had chosen Copalimayta as their Sinchi. He came forth to resist
the invasion, saying that the strangers should not enter his lands
or those of the natives. His resistance was such that Manco Ccapac
and his companions were obliged to turn their backs. They returned
to Huanay-pata, the land they had usurped from the Huallas. From
the sowing they had made they derived a fine crop of maize, and
for this reason they gave the place a name which means something
After some months they returned to the attack on the natives of
the valley, to tyrannize over them. They assaulted the settlement
of the Sauaseras, and were so rapid in their attack that they captured
Copalimayta, slaughtering many of the Sauaseras with great cruelty.
Copalimayta, finding himself a prisoner and fearing death, fled
out of desperation, leaving his estates, and was never seen again
after he escaped. Mama Huaco and Manco Ccapac usurped his houses,
lands and people. In this way Manco Ccapac, Mama Huaco, Sinchi Rocca,
and Manco Sapaca settled on the site between the two rivers, and
erected the House of the Sun, which they called Ynti-cancha.
They divided all that position, from Santo Domingo to the junction
of the rivers into four neighborhoods or quarters which they call
cancha. They called one Quinti-cancha, the second Chumpi-cancha,
the third Sayri-cancha, and the fourth Yarampuy-cancha. They divided
the sites among themselves, and thus the city was peopled, and,
from the heap of stones of Ayar Auca it was called Cuzco.
By examining the oldest and most prudent among them, in all ranks
of life, who had most credit, I collected and compiled the present
history, referring the sayings and declarations of one party to
their antagonists of another party, for they are divided into parties,
and seeking from each one a memorial of its lineage and of that
of the opposing party.
These memorials, which are all in my possession, were compared
and corrected, and ultimately verified in public, in presence of
representatives of all the parties and lineages, under oaths in
presence of a judge, and with expert and very faithful interpreters
also on oath, and I thus finished what is now written.
Such great diligence has been observed, because the facts which
will be obvious on the true completion of such a great work-the
establishment of the tyranny of the cruel Incas of this land-will
make all the nations of the world understand the judicial and more
than legitimate right that the King of Castille has to these Indies
and to other lands adjacent, especially to these kingdoms of Peru.
As all the histories of past events have been verified by proof,
which in this case has been done so carefully and faithfully by
order and owing to the industry of the most excellent Viceroy Don
Francisco de Toledo, no one can doubt that everything in this volume
is most sufficiently established and verified without any room being
left for reply or contradiction. I have been desirous of making
this digression because, in writing the history, I have heard that
many entertain the doubts I have above referred to, and it seemed
well to satisfy them once for all.
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